"The Myth about Flood: calculations and reality"
1. What stands up for myths...
History of mankind represents only brief instant in a life evolution on the Earth. However this "instant" has special interest for us as representatives of this mankind.
In its research the modern historical science is limited basically only to that period of time for which more or less authentic written sources were kept, and it names indulgently and scornfully previous period as "prehistoric". But the history of human civilization began much more before occurrence of writing to what numerous archaeological data testify. However archeology itself gives frequently only sketchy and indirect material, not allowing to combine uniform and complete picture comparable with that the history of "written" period gives.
At the same time there is a huge seam of cultural heritage as myths and transmitted orally legends where described events concern to times much earlier than writing was born. Unfortunately, one of characteristic of those sources is their saturation both almost mystical events and characters which magic and supernatural abilities obviously not blend with modern scientific picture of the world. Therefore the official historical science practically does not consider overwhelming majority of stories and legends, having imposed on them a brand of "myth" and having equated them to inventions and to stretch of ancient people imagination. But is oral ancient heritage so far from the real past?..
For last century many discoveries are already made, the information containing in mythology has served as a push to which. The most known of them is the discovery of legendary Troya by Shliman, who, having cast away opinion of official historians, has decided to read Gomer’s poem in the literal sense instead of as fascinating book in "fantasy"-style.
Since many recognized researchers have used the data from myths as an initial base of their researches but - being constrained by frameworks of "unique valid" method of official historical science - at discoveries description they completely "forgot" about a source of information or, at the best, only slightly mentioned about it. Perhaps, only "layman in history and archeology" Shliman opened real Troya was not afraid to refer to mythology as a source of the authentic data.
Therefore there is a question: whether we can change appraisal about oral heritage past and proceed from "readings of fairy tales to night" to decoding ancient legends in searches of the authentic data?
2. A flood in transmitted orally legends
The serious argument for changing of viewpoint to mythology can be that there is obvious likeness at all variety of myths in different locales and at diverse nations. In particular, "...all our early civilizations have kept alive memoirs about grandiose cataclysms which were gone through by their predecessors" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
Certainly, it is possible to declare myths about cataclysms as consequence of heavy life conditions of prehistoric people which were extremely strongly depend on nature whims and on local nature disasters (as official historical science does it purely). However "it is much more difficult to explain specific but discernible imprint of reason in myths about cataclysms. Frequently the degree of convergence between ancient legends is strong enough to cause suspicion whether all of them are written by one author"" (ibidem).
Not historians but explorers of mythology (as some variety of folklore) have met with the given problem when they detected considerable likeness of Flood’s myths of miscellaneous nations.
"Almost in all cultures of the world there are legends amazingly similar against each other about the Universal flood - there are more than five hundred of them. There is the same plot in all these legends: the mankind perishes from the Flood, one person with his family is rescued only. In the western countries this person is known under name Noj, atsteks name him is Nene, on Near East his name is "Atrahasis", Utnapishti or Ziusudra. As to saving means: in the Bible it is called “an ark”, that is the ship; in Mesopotamija’s legends it is the underwater vessel, and in atsteks legends the speech goes about the hollowed log" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
In particular: "...Mesopotamija’s myth about flooding is intercepted with well-known bible history about Noj and Flood in many respects.... At all variety of legend versions the main thing is always transferred posterity, namely: there was a global accident which almost has completely destroyed mankind" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
In India "...scientists have found out versions of the Great Flood! Manu is dravid’s Noj, and some fish dzhhasha has helped him to be rescued from destruction (the world creator Brahma, and in other versions - the world keeper Vishnu was embodied in that fish). "Shatapatha Brahmana" containing this history is also more senior than the Bible! "Mahabharata" speaks about the Flood too" (V.Batsalev, A.Varakin, "Secrets of archeology").
On the Indian mythology "Vishnu [god] has warned Manu [man] about forthcoming flood. He has sent him the big ship and ordered to embark all alive essences on pair and seeds of all plants, and then to sit there itself" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
And in the Greek variant "...people were erased by Zevs, tsar of gods.... The vindictive deity has used universal flood for clearing of the Earth... In this flood all mankind was lost except for several people which have run on highest mountains" (ibidem).
"In flood-myths existing in Laos and northern Thailand it is told that entities “tens” lived in upper kingdom many centuries ago... Once “tens” have pronounced that before eating something people should be divided with them by meal as the sign of respect. The people have refused and in fury “tens” have arranged flooding which has devastated ground" (ibidem).
"There are Japanese legends according to which islands of Oceania have appeared after the world was destroyed by flooding and then recreated by god Tangaloa. Inhabitants of Samoa trust in flooding that once has cleared all mankind from face of the Earth" (ibidem).
In the Mexican mythology "destruction was as torrential rain and flooding. Mountains have disappeared and people have turned to fishes..." (ibidem).
"...In Ecuador Kanar’s tribe keeps an ancient history about flooding from which two brothers were rescued having climbed up on high mountain" (ibidem).
"In province Ankasmarka that in five leagues from Cuzco Indians told the following fable. One month prior to their flood ewes (llamas) steel sad, in day-time they did not feed, and they keep an eye on stars at night. Eventually the shepherd has taken an interest a reason of their anxiety and they have answered that the arrangement of stars predicts destruction of the world from water. Having heard it the shepherd has consulted to six children and together they have made decision to collect how many is possible food and ewes and to mount on top of very high mountain under name Ankasmarka. Indians speak that in process of water line increase the mountain all became higher and consequently the flood has failed to cover it completely, and when water slept the mountain has decreased too. Thus, six children of that shepherd again have occupied that area..." (Kristobal' de Molina).
"In pre-Columbus Chile Araukans have kept legend that upon a time there was flooding from which few Indians were rescued only. They ran on high mountain under name Tegteg that means "rattling" or "sparkling" which had three tops and was capable to float in water" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"In extreme south of continent the legend of nation Yamana from Tierra del Fuego narrates: "the Flood was caused with the Woman-Moon. It was time of great ascent... The Moon was full of hatred to human beings... In that time everything have drowned except for those few who were able to run on five mountain tops which have not covered by water"" (ibidem).
"Luizens from the bottom California have a legend about flooding which has flooded mountains and has destroyed the most part of mankind. Only few mans were rescued having run away on highest peaks which have not disappeared under water how all ambient... Further to the north the same myths were written down at Gurons. The legend of mountaineers from Algonkin’s family tells how Great Hare Michabo restored the world after flood..." (ibidem).
"Lind’s "Dacota Indians History"... expounded Irokez’s myth about how "once the sea and waters have gushed over the ground having ruined all life human". Indians-Chikaso asserted that the world was destroyed by waters "but one family and animal on pair of each kind was rescued". Siu also spoke about time when dry ground did not remain and all people have disappeared" (ibidem).
The similar likeness of myths practically on all Earth can have one of two reasons.
First, likeness of myths could be caused by their sole author. However results of various enough profound studies substantially sweep aside such viewpoint.
"There are known more than 500 of such legends [about a flood] all in the world. Having investigated 86 of them (20 Asian, 3 European, 7 African, 46 American and 10 from Australia and Oceania), doctor Rishar Andre has come to conclusion that 62 legends are completely independent from Mesopotamija’s and Jewish variants" (ibidem).
Then it is necessary to recognize that behind all these ancient legends there is a certain real cataclysm which traces inevitably should be found out and presently.
What natural sciences speak in this occasion?..
3. Archaeological traces of the Flood
According to archeology in India where there are some versions of myth about the Flood its real attributes are found out. For example, in Shanidar cave:
"Its uniqueness is that ancient people permanently lived in it. The oldest cultural layer concerns to 65-60 millennia, late - to XI millennium BC... The type of people named “homo sapiens” has ceased to use the cave as habitation just in XI millennium... The main thing appeared that cultural layers of Shanidar cave alternated with layers of silt, sand, cockleshells and fine pebble. And it is in the cave which never was a sea-bottom! Archeologists have found out four accidents which have overtaken not only the cave but also people living in it... Only last Great Flood "has expelled" ancient people from under natural vaults of Shanidar to primitive round dwellings..." (V.Batsalev, A.Varakin, "Secrets of archeology").
In other region where there are versions of myth about the Flood - in South America - also there are tracks of such cataclysm dated the same period of time - XI millennium BC.
"In South America Andes, in mountains at altitude 12.500 ft (4200 m) geologists have found out traces of sea deposits! In the same area some ruins in Tiauanako (at altitude 13.000 ft, 4300 m) appeared filled with six-foot (two-meter) layer of liquid dirty and it was not possible to find a source of flooding" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
"...Skeleton fragments of people and animals lay in chaotic disorder together with treated rocks, instruments, tools and uncountable quantity of other subjects. It is visible that any force pulled, fractured and dumped all this in a heap" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"It is possible not to doubt that the reason of destruction Tiauanako was natural accident... It has taken place more than 12000 years back" (ibidem).
The similar tracks are discovered in the whole continent.
"In whole South America also they detected Glacial Age fossilized remains in which skeletons of incompatible kinds animal (predators and herbivorouses) are mixed disorderly with human bones. It is not less important that the combination (in enough extended areas) fossilized overland and sea animals disorderly mixed but buried in the same geologic horizon" (ibidem).
It is necessary to note that the ending of last so-called Glacial Age is dated by the same XI millennium BC. However character of fossilized remains obviously does not correspond to "smooth" change of World ocean level, that takes place in the time of gradual melting of ices at the end of the Glacial Age (according to the conventional theory). Faster, all of this reminds result of influence of powerful water stream which is very short-term and more comparable with cataclysm but not with gradual change of weather conditions.
The similar picture can be observed also in Europe:
"...Cracks in rocks at tops of separately worth hills in the Central France are filled with remains of bones of mammoths, hairy rhinoceroses and other animals. Top of Mon-gene mountain in Burgundy is peppered with skeleton fragments of mammoth, northern deer, horse and other animals" (ibidem).
But the most impressing traces of powerful cataclysm of the same period are found out in northern regions.
"The permafrost in which remains... of animals are buried on Alaska resembles fine dark-grey sand. Being ice-bound in this mass, speaking by words of professor Hibbena from New Mexico University: "...interlaced parts of animals and trees lay alternating with ice stratums and layers of peat and moss... There are bisons, horses, wolves, bears, lions... Apparently whole herds of animals were lost together being struck down any general malicious force... Such heaps of bodies of animals and people are not formed in usual conditions..."" (ibidem).
"In permafrost of Alaska... it is possible to see... the evidence of atmospheric perturbations with anything not comparable power. Mammoths and bisons were broken off on a part and were interlaced so as if any space hands of gods operated in fury. In one place... a forward leg and a shoulder of mammoth were found; soft tissues rests adjoining to backbone together with sinews and chords still kept on turned black bones, and chitin capsule of tusks was not injured. Also traces of carcasses dismemberment by knife or other instrument are not detected (as it would be in case of hunters participation to dismemberment). Animals has simply broken off and has scattered on district as products from plaited straw though some of them weighed some tons. Trees which also have been torn up, braided and mixed are hashed with congestions of bones; all of this is covered with subsequently tightly frozen fine-grained quicksand" (ibidem).
"These animals on Alaska were lost so suddenly that at once they have frozen not having had time to be spread out - and it proves to be true that quite often local residents de-froze carcasses and used meat in food" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
Character of fossilized remains of vegetative and animal origin, and especially conditions in which they are found, obviously testify that they are result of action of the most powerful tsunami which collected all in itself and has thrown out its contents in strong cold area (that is quite possible at sufficient wave force).
"It is possible to observe approximately the same picture in Siberia where catastrophic change of a climate and geological processes took place almost at the same time" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"The same history has taken place in Siberia - many buried in permafrost animals most part of which was typical for temperate climate areas also was revealed here. Here again corpses of animals were among uprooted trunks of trees and other vegetation and carried on themselves attributes of destruction from unexpected and sudden accident... Mammoths were lost suddenly in plenties at a strong frost. The death has come so quickly that they had no time to digest swallowed food..." (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
"Apparently northern areas of Alaska and Siberia have suffered most of all from killing cataclysms 13000-11000 years ago. As though the death has waved scythe along the Polar circle - remains of countless amount of large animals, including many carcasses with intact soft tissues and improbable amount of ideally kept tusks of mammoths were found out there. Moreover, in both regions tissues of mammoths de-froze to feed draught dogs and steaks from the mammoth even appeared in restaurant menus" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
Thus archeological researches give us evidences of cataclysm of XI millennium BC not less horrifying than the Flood picture represented by mythology does. You can to imagine the scale of event from provisional map made on the data both of myths and archeology (see Fig.1).
However the data saved up by modern science also testify to that consequences of cataclysm were not limited to "single" destruction of part of living creatures. Sharp change of climatic conditions in various regions of a planet falls on the same period.
"As number of oxygen isotope received in deep-water tests of Atlantic ocean and equatorial waters of Pacific ocean shows, the last of 100 thousands years of icing were suddenly finished approximately 12 thousand years ago. Very fast ice thawing has caused fast rise of seas level..." (ibidem).
Strong climate change has caused great advance of animal kinds extinction.
"...mass animals extinction has really taken place as a result of turmoil of last Glacial Age.... For example in New World over 70 kinds of large mammal have died out between 15000 and 8000 BC... These losses, meaning as a matter of fact a violent death over 40 million of animals, were not in regular intervals allocated on all period; on the contrary their basic part falls to two thousand years between 11000 and 9000 BC. To sense dynamics we shall note that only about 20 kinds have disappeared during previous 300 thousand years" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"The same picture of mass extinction was observed in Europe and Asia. Even far Australia was not exception, by some estimations having lost for rather short time interval nineteen kinds of large vertebrates but not only mammal" (ibidem).
"Animals died out most intensively between 11000 and 9000 BC when rough and inexplicable climate fluctuations took place. (According to geologist John Imbri, the climatic revolution was done about 11000 years ago.) Besides accelerated precipitation of sedimentary rocks and sharp rise... of superficial water layers of Atlantic ocean took place" (ibidem).
As a whole the objective data convincingly testify that in XI millennium BC there was a powerful cataclysm which has caused so significant consequences that it became original "watershed" between two completely different periods in history of our planet.
"The accident which destroyed an advanced civilization and has caused set of serious changes on Earth surface has taken place ostensibly about 10 000 years back. From the viewpoint of archeology it is the end of ancient Stone Age, Paleolith; on geological classification it is the end of last Glacial Age - border between Pleistocene, bottom section of the Quaternary period, and Holocene, its top section" (J.Malina, R.Malinova, "Natural accidents and newcomers from space").
"This epoch [XI millennium BC] was decisive not only for ancient Egyptians but also for many other peoples. Really... it was epoch of drama climate changes, fast rise of sea level, earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruptions and lava rains from black sky. This epoch was the most probable source of many distributed worldwide myths about universal cataclysm" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
4. The Flood - flooding or something other?
But what is the cause of such accident? According to one of meeting versions, - so-called "tidal theory", - the cataclysm has arisen as a result of some space body passing nearby from the Earth.
"Some experts believe that the terrible mix carcasses of mammoths with broken and hashed trees in Siberia "is obliged by its origin to a huge tidal wave which pulled out trees with roots and heated them together with animals in dirty. In polar areas all of this froze strong together and kept up to now in permafrost"" (ibidem).
Basically the given hypothesis co-ordinates with that at occurrence of such powerful tidal wave in particular tectonic processes should become more active. It proves to be true by obvious description of earthquakes and volcanoes eruptions in myths.
"Enough frequently various kinds of natural disasters (two and more) are represented so as if they have happened simultaneously (more often there are flooding and earthquakes, but sometimes there are fires in combination with horrifying darkness)" (ibidem).
"Meanwhile wolf Fenrir, that gods diligently chained long before it, has torn fetters and has run away. It began to shake off and the world has trembled. Serving by an axis of the ground ash Iggdrasil was turned out upwards by roots. Mountains began to be crumbled and burst from top up to bottom, and dwarfs desperately but unsuccessfully tried to find familiar but now missed entrances in their underground dwellings... The universe has turned into a huge furnace. The flame was pulled out from cracks in rocks, steam hissed everywhere. All living creatures, all vegetation were destroyed. There was only a naked ground, but it as well as the sky has become whole covered by cracks and clefts. And then all rivers and all seas have risen and have left from coasts. Waves collided with each other from different directions. They were raised and boiled, hiding under themselves the sinking ground..." (Teutonic legends).
"The volcanic phenomena and earthquakes also are frequently mentioned in connection with flooding especially in both America. Chilean Araukans directly speak that "flooding was caused by volcanoes eruptions which were accompanied by strong earthquakes". Mums-Maya from Santiago-Chimaltenango in western uplands of Guatemala keep memory about "burning pitch stream" which as they speak was one of world destruction tools. And in Gran Chaco (Argentina) Mataco Indians tell about "black storm-cloud which has come from the south during flooding and has closed all sky. Lightning sparkled, thunder rattled. But drops that fell from the sky resembled not a rain but a fire..."" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"Many myths about cataclysm narrate about times of awful cold, of darkened sky and of black rain consisting of burning pitch" (ibidem).
The archeological data testify to tectonic activity increase too:
"Layers of volcanic ashes sometimes alternately with heaps of bones and tusks are deposited in depths of a permafrost ...along death arch had passed Siberia [including Novosibirsk islands], Yukon and Alaska. There is no doubt that simultaneously with wholesale deaths there were volcanic eruptions of horrifying force" (ibidem).
"...Thousand prehistoric animals and plants have sunk at one moment in well-known lakes of bitumen La-Brea near Los Angeles. Bisons, horses, camels, sloths, mammoths, mastodons and not less than seven hundred saber-toothed tigers there are among essences taken on a surface... Found at La-Brea remains ("broken, crumpled, deformed and mixed in homogeneous mass") clearly speak about sudden and awful volcanic cataclysm" (ibidem).
"Similar finds of typical birds and mammal of last Glacial Age were made in two other deposits of asphalt in California (Carpintery and Mac-Kittrik). In San-Pedro valley mastodons skeletons buried in thickness of volcanic ash and sand were found out in standing position. Fossilized remains from glacial lake Floristan in Colorado and from John-Day basin in Oregon also were found in volcanic ash" (ibidem).
"Remains of animals and sometimes heaps of bones and canines were covered with a layer of volcanic ash. It is not subject to doubt that there was a volcanic eruption of enormous scales simultaneously to mass destruction of animals " (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
However the tidal wave theory, being coordinated with tectonic activity traces, does not explain other consequences of cataclysm of that period. One of strong divergences between facts and this theory is that in any areas a cold snap has come, and on the contrary warming has come in others areas.
In particular it has sharply become cold in areas of Siberia and Alaska.
"Some islands at Arctic ocean were not covered with ice during last Glacial Age. For example on Baffin island, at 1400 kilometers from North Pole, rests of alder and birch were found out in turbary; this forces to assume that less than 30 thousand years ago climate there was much warmer than today. Such conditions were kept there still 17 thousands years ago. During Visconsin congelation in the center of Arctic ocean there was a zone of temperate climate favorable for flora and fauna which could not exist in territory of Canada and United States at that time" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"Russian scientists came to a conclusion that the Arctic ocean was warm during the most part of last Glacial Age. In the report of academicians Sax, Belov and Lapina, devoted to various stages of their oceanographic researches, it is spoken that especially warm conditions prevailed up to 18 thousands years ago" (ibidem).
"...Undoubtedly that at any moment, 12-13 thousands years back, baneful cold has come to Siberia with horrifying speed and since did not weaken its grasp" (ibidem).
Recently also the data are received that glaciers of Antarctica not have at all a history in hundred thousand years (as considered earlier) and really they are much younger. Their appearance can be quite connected to a cold snap in the Antarctic region also as a result of the cataclysm which has brought in "freezing" of Siberia and Alaska.
"Using radioisotope method of dating developed by doctor U.D.Uri, scientists from institute Karnegi in Washington have managed to establish with sufficient accuracy that great Antarctic rivers which were a source... of small-dispersion sediments, really flew approximately 6000 years back... Only after this date, about 4000 years BC, deposits of glacial type began to collect at the bottom of Ross sea... Samples specify that this was preceded with the long warm period" (ibidem).
On the other hand, the ending of "Glacial Age" in Europe exactly falls on the period of cataclysm.
"...The Scandinavian glacier fastly thawed at interval between 11-th and 9-th millennia. Deciding stage has come in 10-th millennium. Then all rest of the Scandinavian glacier "was dissolved" during two thousand years" (by J.Malina, R.Malinova, "Natural accidents and newcomers from space").
"Just at that moment climate pendulum was intensively rocked to opposite side. Thawing began so suddenly and on such extensive area that it have named "some kind of miracle". In Europe geologists name this period as Balling phase of warm climate, and in Northern America - Brad interval. In both regions... the ice cap accruing during 40 thousand years has disappeared during only two millennia. It is obvious that it could not be result of slowly influence of climatic factors to which usually explain glacial ages... Thawing speed forces to assume any unusual factor influence on climate. The data testify to this factor for the first time has proved about 16500 years ago, having destroyed the most part (it is possible, three quarters of glaciers during two thousand years) and that the basic part of these drama events has taken place during thousand years or less" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
Such picture of climatic changes is not entered in any way in results of influence of some space body which are orbiting nearby from the Earth. Produced by gravitational interaction between Earth and this body tidal wave and intensification thus tectonic activity (as show numerous scientific researches and calculations) should result in such climate change which would be homogeneous enough on whole surface of planet. But it has not taken place.
Thus "the tidal theory" does not for causes substantiation of cataclysm of XI millennium BC, since it not only does not explain all picture of cataclysm but also rather essentially contradicts its observably consequences.
5. Leapfrog at heavens
And here myths according to which a seen sky change there in various regions was simultaneously with cataclysm on the Earth surface are also capable to prompt the next idea.
"Inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego... spoke that the Sun and the Moon "have fallen from the sky", and The Chinese told that "planets have changed their way. The Sun, the Moon and stars began to move in a new fashion"... Tarahumara in northern Mexico have kept legends about destruction of the world because Sun way has changed... Other tribe from Tierra del Fuego, Pehuanche, connects flooding to long period of darkness: "the Sun and the Moon have fallen from the sky and the world remained without light"" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
In China exists "...a number of legends which spoke about consequences of that "people have risen against gods and universe system has come in disorder": "Planets have changed way. The sky has moved to the north. The Sun, the Moon and stars began to move in a new fashion. The Earth was fallen to pieces, from its bowels water has gushed out and has flooded the ground"" (ibidem).
"And the Earth itself began to lose the shape. Stars began float away the sky and disappear in gaping emptiness..." (ibidem).
Greek legend about the Phaeton tells: "Fiery horses have quickly felt that reins are held with an inexperienced hand. They have left usual way sometimes backing, sometimes rushing aside; then whole earth has seen with amazement how the magnificent Sun has suddenly somersaulted and has headlong started to fly downward as meteor instead to follow in eternal and majestic way... The grass has faded; crops have burnt out; woods have been set on fire and smoke; then striped ground began to crack and crumble, and turned black rocks have split from heat".
Greeks themselves specified change of Earth’s axis position as the reason of this cataclysm. Not only myths of some other nations but also a number of modern researchers adhere to a similar conclusion.
"The event known from the Bible under the name of Flood is described in multitude of other ancient sources. In a number from them it is directly pointed to the main reason of a flood - change of an sky inclination in relation to the ground that it is possible only at displacement of Earth axis" (V.Demin, "Secrets of the universe").
The theory of inclination change of Earth’s rotation axis is capable not only to prove the reason of cataclysm and to explain its consequences but also to remove contradictions of "glacial theory" that still prevails in official science and reduces periodic climate changes in that or another region to change of glaciers area on planet.
"...How to explain the fact that any of ice caps evolved during glacial ages has not arisen on present poles or even near to them?" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"...The best theory explaining glacial age is that what speaks: because the pole was in this place. Thus it is easy to explain presence of glacier in India and Africa in the past though presently these places are in tropics. In the same way it is possible to explain an origin of any continental-scale glacier" (Hepgud).
However the hypothesis of sudden change of Earth’s rotation axis inclination does not sustain even simple analysis from the viewpoint of physics.
The rotating Earth is a gyroscope with greatly impressive own movement quantity moment (at radius of 6400 kilometers and weight of 6.1021 tons the Earth accomplishes one revolution only for day!), i.e. it is very inertial object (object which "strongly resists" to attempts to change the characteristic of its movement).
Besides very specific kind of influence is necessary to receive indispensable effect (not simple physical force, but namely rotary-overturning moment), whence it follows in particular that such sudden change of Earth’s rotation axis inclination can not be caused, say, by gravitational interaction with any "passing by" space body. Such rotary-overturning moment can arise for example at tangent (or close to tangent) meteorite impact (see Fig.2).
In the most rough approximation with the help of gyroscopes mechanics it is quite possible to estimate loading which is necessary for turn of Earth axis at such meteorite impact.
For simplification of calculations we shall count the Earth as a homogeneous solid ball with radius R and mass M rotating before collision with angular speed . We shall consider also that all pulse (or quantity of movement) of meteorite at it tangent collision with Earth’s surface will turn into displacement of Earth’s axis (i.e. into change of vector of Earth’s rotation angular speed).
That is all movement quantity moment of meteorite (relatively the Earth’s center) at collision with the Earth will go on change of the own movement quantity moment of the Earth. Or in mathematical expression:
where - the inertia moment of the Earth relatively the axis of symmetry,
m - mass of falling meteorite,
v - speed of falling meteorite,
- change quantity of Earth rotation angular speed, determined by ratio
Accepting for simplicity that angular speed of Earth’s rotation after meteorite impact is
(that is only an axis but not value of rotation changes), we shall receive
where - is displacement corner of Earth axis.
Then it is easy to calculate that according to the most conservative estimates to turn of Earth’s rotation axis on a corner equal 20o (it is determined from necessary climatic changes - see further) the required sizes of meteorite flying up to the Earth with speed of 100 km/s should be not less than 1000 kilometers in diameter in any case. And this is in the case of very idealized picture of collision - taking into account real heterogeneity of the Earth and losses of energy on processes which have been not connected to axis displacement reduces to appreciable increase of required meteorite sizes.
The similar sizes have only the largest known meteorites in Solar system, probability of collision with which though is not equal to zero but very and very much small.
Besides it is obvious that if "stone" of such sizes will not result to "demolition" a part of the planet Earth (which diameter only 12800 km) but certainly it will annihilate all living creatures on it. (Sizes of the largest known asteroid of Solar system Tserera by diameter just 1000 km are shown on Fig.3 in comparison with Europe sizes.)
As annihilation of all living creatures on the Earth (as well as the planet Earth) is not among results of cataclysm of XI millennium BC, hardly there is a sense to consider seriously the version of Earth’s rotation axis inclination. Is it impasse again?..
The way out from this impasse can be found in the theory of earth's crust "slip" offered by Shults which has assumed that the mechanism of described changes is connected with "movement of lithosphere as single whole... by fast jerks which follow prolonged pauses".
To understand essence of the given theory it is necessary to recollect Earth’s structure (Fig. 4). The solid earth's crust (or lithosphere) is based upon powerful layers of mantle consisting of liquid fused breeds like shell in egg. Besides thickness of crust under the order of value makes from 5 km at oceans up to 50 km in area of continental plates while the general Earth radius is 6400 km.
Even only speculative it is clear that this allows to earth's crust under certain conditions "to slip" on a liquid layer of magma making up Earth’s mantle without any appreciable change of rotation of gyroscope named "the planet Earth". You can imagine how "easily" it can take place if you remember how easily and quickly hot lava (the same magma) is capable to move on a ground surface during volcanoes eruption.
Such "crust-slip" is capable to provide both Earth poles position change accompanied with global non-uniform climate changes and change of seen heaven. (At "slip" seen sky inclination changes though Earth’s rotation axis inclination in relation to orbit plane does not change).
6. Myths correct the theory of "slip"
Now it is a necessary to understand with possible reasons of such "slip".
Under the initial version of this theory the given effect can be caused by fluctuations (oscillations) of the Sun attraction of the Earth with centrifugal forces acting on glacial caps of planet.
"When the form of Earth’s orbit deviates from ideal circle more than on one percent Sun’s gravitational influence on the Earth grows more strongly drawing and all planet as a whole and its massive ice caps. Their enormous weight in turn presses on a crust and this pressure in a combination with increased inclination of Earth’s axis forces a crust to move..." (Hepgud).
However simple physical estimations for such process show its insignificant probability.
Because mass of ice caps in polar areas is almost insignificantly small in comparison with mass of earth's crust the weight difference caused by centrifugal forces on a pole and on equator is less than one percent (!) that reduces in general rotating influence of ice caps on earth's crust on extremely low level. Such difference is at level of tidal fluctuations with which we daily face (however it does not result daily in similar cataclysms).
Thus it is necessary to search for other reasons capable to provide "slip" of earth's crust. For this purpose we shall return to mythology...
On myths in territory of modern Iran: "...as a result of an attack of devil Angro-Mainu a garden of pleasures... has turned to lifeless desert where ten months are winter and only two - summer" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
Under the sacred book of zoroastrism "Avesta": "Ahuramazda has addressed to Iima and has told him: "Oh, just Iima... The fatal winter carrying with self a violent destructive frost is going to fall on material world. This is fatal winter when huge quantity of snow drops out"".
In another zoroastrism sacred book "Bundahish" we can read: "When Angro-Mainu has sent violent destructive frost he also "has attacked the sky and has disordered it". "Bundahish" tells that this attack has allowed impious to take hold "of one third of the sky and to close its by darkness" while crawling ice compressed all around.
"...In South America Indians Toba from the area of Gran-Chaco which is on a joint of modern borders of Paraguay, Argentina and Chile, still repeat myth about arrival of "the Great Cold". In this case the warning is received from semi-divine figure by name Asin: "Asin ordered to man to collect as much as possible fire wood and to cover a hut with thick layer of reed because the Great Cold comes... Ice and slush kept very long..."" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"In Maya’s book Popol’-Vuh flooding ties together with "strong hail, black rain, fog and indescribable cold". There it is spoken also that at this time "it was cloudy and gloomy over the whole world... faces of the Sun and the Moon were concealed". In other Maya’s sources it is spoken that these strange and awful phenomena have fallen upon mankind "in time of ancestors. The Earth has darkened... At first the sun shined brightly. Then in broad daylight it became dark..." (ibidem).
"Catastrophic flood was followed with long period during which sunlight has disappeared from heavens and air was filled with gloomy darkness... "Gods waited for a long time, while at last the sky did not begin to redden in the East. There huge sphere of the Sun giving life has risen..." At this moment of space revival Ketsal’koatl’ has appeared" (ibidem).
Even in Europe where glacial age was in whole finished it is found a description of temporary cold snap. Under Teutonic legends: "In a far wood in the east elderly giantess has brought into the world whole brood of wolf-cubes which father was Fenrir. One of these monsters has run after the Sun to take hold it. The pursuit long was vain but with each season the wolf gained strength and at last it has succeeded in catch up the Sun. Its bright beams have become dim one by one. It began blood-red shade and then has absolutely disappeared... After this there has come awful winter in the world. Snow storms have flown from different directions".
"...More often the flood appears in other legends, however familiar motives of divine warning and rescue of mankind rests in various areas of the world frequently communicate with a sudden congelation" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
Besides myths inform that a few later winter stops in these regions. Given details of cataclysm strongly remind so-called "shock winter" which (as it is calculated by scientists long ago) arises at falling a large meteorite to the Earth.
Actually the significant amount of myths names directly heavenly objects as the reasons of the Flood.
"At a number of tribes of Australian natives... it is popular belief that they by own origin are obliged to great flooding which has washed off earlier existing landscape together with inhabitants. According to myths about an origin of some other tribes, the responsibility for flood lays on space dragon Urlungur which symbol is the rainbow" (ibidem).
"In hymns to Viracocha which have been written down by Pachacuti Yamki there is a term anancocha, literally - "a sea from above", in the direct relation to star heavens. That the given myth would not mean yet sources of approaching flood were somewhere outside in astronomical sphere" (U.Sallivan, "Secrets of Inks").
"In other myth about Ketsal’koatl’ also written down in Nauatle language we get to know that the death of the Fourth Sun (previous to the Fifth Sun which Asteks tried to keep in alive) has come from hands of stars. This myth, the remaking of some older (and, probably, destroyed) versions, has exact own duplicate in Andes in a myth about llama and flood. For Asteks stars were enemies of the Sun, the Fifth Sun" (ibidem).
"...Ancient and later traditions repeatedly connected the legend about Flood to symbolism of comets..." (N.Mamuna, "The Zodiac of mysteries").
As meteorites very seldom fall to the Earth strictly vertically, at their impact about ground surface it takes place both vertical and a tangent component of force influence (Fig. 5). Clearly that at sufficient force of impact the given tangent component can serve as the reason of earth's crust displacement over a magma layer, as the reason "slip".
It is obvious, that as earth's crust mass is much less mass of whole Earth (if one will compare even thickness of a crust with radius of the Earth and will take into account increase of density with depth) so far as the effort necessary for displacement only of an earth's crust is much weaker than that effort which would be required for influence on the whole planet.
And besides falling of large meteorite causing also appreciable displacement of earth's crust is quite capable to cause all those effects which were already mentioned. In particular it is capable to cause "explosive" character of processes, - fast climate change, sudden approach of "shock winter", intensification of tectonic processes and powerful tsunami (Flood), - confirmed both myths and real geological and archeological data.
7. Physical calculation of "slip" opportunity
Now it is possible to estimate an opportunity of earth's crust "slip" at impact of large meteorite from the viewpoint of physics for that it is enough to take advantage of rather simple reasons.
At the moment of meteorite impact Earth‘s crust receives additional rotation with initial angular speed around some "slip" axes which obviously does not coincide with an axis of own Earth rotation (otherwise there will be no change of poles position). Thus each point of Earth’s surface gets the additional speed which depend on initial angular speed and distance R from the given point up to an axis of "slip" (see Fig. 6).
"Sliping" on liquid and "motionless" mantle the earth's crust will test braking which in this case will be similar to braking of moving body in viscous liquid (the more speed of body the more force braking this movement). Therefore for any point of Earth’s surface it will be true:
( 1 )
Where v - speed of surface point at the moment of time t,
F - force of crust braking in given point,
k - some constant coefficient.
Then for any thin ring layer of earth's crust in plane that is perpendicular "slip" axis from the law of Newton follows:
( 2 )
where m - mass of this ring layer of crust.
Having made summation on all surface of the Earth (i.e. integration on corner between direction to point of Earth’s surface and "slip" axis) and in view of that from (2) we receive differential equation of earth's crust movement as:
( 3 )
where M - mass of Earth's crust.
The decision of the equation (3):
( 4 )
shows that movement of Earth’s crust after meteorite impact is slowed down very quickly (as exponent). Final displacement of each point of Earth’s surface will make
( 5 )
Taking into account that vdt = ds from (4) and (5) it is possible to receive that work of braking forces for full stopping of "slip" will make
( 6 )
where - Smax the maximal displacement of points of Earth’s surface (on "slip equator", i.e. at R = R3, where R3 - radius of the Earth).
( 7 )
where T - certain characteristic time of process, i.e. time for which "slip" movement will practically be stopped: .
In applied calculations frequently characteristic time of process is determined from a condition:
Given characteristic time of "slip" process can be accepted equal to one day (twenty-four hours) both from speculative reasons and from the data met in mythology.
"In ancient times the Sun has died. Because of its death night proceeded five days. Rocks rattled friend about friend. Mortars and stone millstones have started to eat people. Male of llamas began to transport people" (Uarochiry Myths).
"In 1872 George Smith, restorer of the British museum, re-establishing and reading clay tablets which have been found out at excavation of Ninevia, capital of ancient Assyria, has investigated an cuneiform inscription on one of fragments which was... the description of the Great Flood in the same details but with other heroes! And it was the poem! And bible Noi was called in it Utnapishtim, and Ararat mountain Nitsir. It is truth, the Flood last only six days and seven night (in the Bible - 40)... The Poem was named "Epos about Gilgamesh" (V.Batsalev, A.Varakin, "Secrets of archeology").
"Arne Pebel has published in 1914 translation of Shumerian tablet kept in Philadelphia, in museum of Pennsylvania university. In them it is told that devout and pious tsar Ziusurda has received the instruction from Utu (the sun god) and departed by the ship, being rescued from the Flood raged seven days and seven night" (ibidem).
Further. Proceeding from the general picture of climate change in Europe, Siberia, Alaska and Antarctica it is possible to estimate displacement of poles in 2-3 thousand kilometers. Under assumption of Hapgud: "...Up to the end of last Glacial Age, say before XI millennium BC, the continent of Antarctica was approximately on 3 thousand kilometers to the north, that is in more favorable moderate latitudes then it has moved on the present position inside the Southern polar circle as a result of powerful moving of Earth’s crust".
Besides it is necessary to take into account that the size of poles displacement obviously is less than size of the maximal displacement of earth's crust. It is clear from Fig.5: the tangent component of force influences at meteorite impact to Earth’s surface can be spread out on meridian and latitude components. It is rather obvious that moving of poles occurs only under influence at meridian (perpendicularly to equator) component. However under "favorable conditions", i.e. at the appropriate trajectory of falling meteorite, the size of meridian component not strongly differs from the size of whole tangent component.
Accepting for simplicity that displacement of poles equally Smax, also that energy of falling meteorite completely has gone to "slip", from all aforesaid and from formula (7) it is possible to receive that the "stone" with radius only 20 km, flying up to the Earth with speed of 50 km/c (usual speed for object flying towards to the Earth), satisfies to all conditions. Taking into account errors of fulfilled estimations it is possible to receive a conclusion that from the viewpoint of physics quite there can be enough meteorite with size about 50 km for making such "slip".
As it is known there is a lot of similar "dust" in our Solar system...
8. Preliminary estimations of meteorite falling region
However it is possible not only to estimate an opportunity of Flood occurrence owing to meteorite falling but also more precisely to determine the place of this falling on the base of those consequences which were caused by it.
Unfortunately we hardly seriously can be helped by mythology as it gives rather general picture of occurred cataclysm without references to any exact position of events epicenter. In ancient texts it is possible to find only the most general hints.
Natural sciences give much more material. And first these are the climatic data which determine that up to the Flood glaciers dominated in area of northeast Canada (peninsula Labrador) and in Europe, but Siberia, Alaska and Arctic ocean were in moderate zone.
If we base on that where is a pole there is and more coldly (i.e. formation of glaciers is most probably) then climatic conditions enough unequivocally specify that "pre-Flood" North Pole was roughly somewhere in area between 20 and 60 western meridian and between 45 and 75 northern parallel (Fig.7).
For pole point the latitude component of force influences at meteorite impact, turning the Earth’s crust around the same axis of own rotation, has no any importance and pole displacement occurs under influence only the meridian component. Hence meteorite falling should take place somewhere on a circle which pass through old and modern poles. That is it should to have coordinates or in range 20o-60o of western longitude or in range 120o-160o of east longitude.
Even the glance on a map of western hemisphere shows full absence in mentioned area though any traces of falling of so large meteorite which inevitably should leave after itself a considerable crater.
But east hemisphere appears more attractive. Here the area of search is appreciably covered with water area of Pacific ocean which ground relief allows to assume associations with residual crater.
It is necessary to note that variant of meteorite falling in Pacific ocean is wonderfully conformed to character of fossilized remains in Siberia and Alaska.
"Scientists confirm that from thirty four animals kinds lived in Siberia before accidents of XI millennium BC... not less than twenty eight were adapted only to moderate climatic conditions. Therefore one of the most surprising moments connected to extinction of animals is that in a counterbalance to presently geographical and climatic conditions, the further we move to the north the more we meet remains of mammoths and other animals" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
The tsunami which have come from the south (from Pacific ocean - area of meteorite falling) moved to the north gradually losing force in process. The cold which has come right after it (the crust has moved sharply to the north) has as though photographed the general picture of that how "tired" tsunami has left its "crop".
But tectonic map gives the biggest information...
Clearly, that meteorite of such sizes, shifting an earth's crust as a whole, quite could cause breaks and cracks in it. Especially if we take into account that in place of approximate falling of such "stone" earth's crust thickness appears comparable with meteorite size.
Character of tectonic plates and breaks specifies that the place of meteorite falling which has caused the Flood quite could be the area of Philippine sea. There we see as though small "splinter" of crust - the Philippine plate, which is much less any another one on our planet (Fig.8). Others such plates are not present behind exception only the Scott plate (Fig.9) which size is comparable with Philippine plate.
However the origin of the Scott plate can be quite explained by other reasons. In particular by that such loading on earth's crust inevitably should cause in it strong internal strain which, according to the theory of elasticity, considerably grow near to sharp edges or corners. And we can observe the result of it in form of the Scott plate, as though squeezed between sharp extremity of the South America continental plate and sharp ledge of the Antarctic (besides - continental) plate.
But we shall return to Philippine sea which (together with nearby islands) in itself strongly reminds a crater (Fig.10). The given place is characterized not only that a lot of tectonic breaks converges to it. Apparently on Fig.8, it is a region where there is a maximum quantity of earthquakes centers and there are most of all of deep centers here. It well corresponds to tectonic consequences of meteoric impact too.
Other result of meteorite falling can be also the following: according to geology the area of Philippine sea is characterized by that sedimentary layers of various age are as though in the mixed condition here. It denies sometimes met statement about absence of meteoric traces in sedimentary rocks of that period.
"At ground of oceans, of internal and border seas the severe sequence of sediments even in those cases which correspond to the period of probable accident is traced. It is impossible to imagine that falling of so huge body in ocean would not cause hashing sedimentary rocks. And if the meteorite has fallen on land, clouds of sand and dust would rise in air. Referred by wind aside ocean they would accumulate on it ground, having formed a layer of sediments among usual deep-water precipitations. But any such layer on the appropriate depth under ocean ground is not found out" (J.Malina, R.Malinova, "Natural accidents and newcomers from space").
Such mixture of sedimentary rocks just takes place at the ground of Philippine sea.
One more aspect of meteorite influence on earth's crust can be occurrence of rotary moment acting on "splinters" of crust in a place of meteorite falling (Fig.11).
Because earth's crust displacement occurred in such manner that the point of old North Pole has moved into direction of Atlantic ocean so far as meridian component of meteorite trajectory which has fallen in area of Philippine sea should be directed from the south to the north. Besides as the Earth rotates from the west to the east so far as influence force of fallen meteorite could have with big value of probability a latitude component directed from the east to the west. Thus, the tangent component meteoric influences had (roughly) direction from southeast to northwest.
Apparently on Fig.12 general relief of Philippine sea ground wonderfully corresponds to adduced reasons and specifies that the Philippine plate has inclination in direction from southeast to northwest as it should be at given trajectory of falling meteorite.
It is necessary to note that the given region is characterized also by that it as though is framed with the most on the Earth deep-water cavities, which completely coincide on position with tectonic breaks (read - cracks) in earth's crust. There is also well-known Mariansk’s cavity (11022 meters depth) here.
The conclusion about meteorite falling to Philippine sea is coordinated as well to the fact that exactly in nearby regions (from Japan and China up to Australia and Oceania) as the reason of the Flood the mythology names a rainbow or the Dragon frequently identified among themselves. It is clearly that in eyes of primitive peoples the trace of falling meteorite quite could look as fiery dragon.
And the last. Philippine sea is in a southeast from China while ancient-China treatise "Huainan-tszy" narrates: "Heavenly arch has broken, Earth supports have broken. The sky has tilted to northwest; the Sun, the Moon and stars have moved. The Earth in a southeast became incomplete and consequently waters and silt have directed there... ".
9. Specification of Earth’s pre-Flood poles position
However still now we take only rather approximate place of meteorite falling and very big range of old North Pole location. For their more exact definition we shall try to profit by the data which have reached us from deep times apparently in completely other sphere. The question is about architectural constructions of antiquity.
First we pay attention to widely known Egyptian pyramids, to be exact - to those three of them which are on the Giza plateau and near to which well-known Sphinx (Fig.13) is located.
Already well-known that Giza pyramids are erected with an extreme degree of accuracy which is on a limit not only of modern building technology but also of modern methods of measurement. But accuracy of orientation on lightsides is most important for us in this case...
Great pyramid "...is oriented on a meridian, and its sides look at four sides of light. An entrance... is on northern side of construction, and thus all internal pyramid structure is planned on axis from the north to the south too, emphasizing by it the importance of meridian arrangement" (R.Bjuvell, E.Dzhilbert, "Secrets of pyramids").
"Northern side is turned almost ideally to the north, east - to the east and so on. The average error is about two angular minutes (for the southern side - less than two minutes) it is exclusive accuracy for any construction of any epoch and really improbable..." (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"Three angular minutes error [of orientation of the Great pyramid on sides of light] corresponds to relative mistake equal only 0,015 %. In opinion of engineers-builders... it is impossible to understand necessity of such accuracy.... If even the basis of monument was distorted on two-three degrees (a mistake about one percent) the naked eye could not simply notice this difference. On the other hand additional difficulties which should be overcome to lower error from three degrees to three minutes are huge... It follows from here that ancient builders erecting the pyramid at the beginning of human civilization should have very weighty motives inducing to provide such exact orientation on light sides" (ibidem).
Ignoring of the reason of need for so high accuracy and a question about authors of construction, it is possible to notice that without dependence from concrete date of pyramid construction its erection was made obviously after the Flood and earth's crust "slip". This conclusion is inevitable if one will take into account insignificant small probability of such exact calculation of "slip" consequences which would allow to achieve the highest degree of orientation of the object constructed up to the Flood.
Last time researches rather argued refute the dating of Giza pyramids construction by IV dynasty of pharaohs as that is asserted with official Egyptology. Except for that various ways of definition of pyramids age coincide practically with sole date - approximately 10450 BC
"... The important evidences on age of pyramids were constantly ignored.... Among such evidences there was an inscription with dedication of pyramid to Isida, the goddess which time Manefon refers by 10450 BC; and also surprising opening of Robert Bjuvell and Edrian Dzhilbert who established that three pyramids of Giza precisely display position of three stars of Orion Belt which they occupied in 10450 BC" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
"Position of stars of Orion Belt on western "coast" of the Milky Way with amazing accuracy corresponds to disposition and orientation of three Giza pyramids concerning Nile!... Time of full coincidence... concerns approximately to 10450 BC" (R.Bjuvell, E.Dzhilbert, "Secrets of pyramids").
"They [stars of Orion Belt] are located with an inclination to southwest in relation to Milky Way axis while pyramids are inclined to southwest in relation to Nile axis too. If one will look attentively in clear night he will possible to see that least of three stars, that is above and which Arabian name is Mintaka, is little displaced to the east from straight line on which two other stars lay. This picture is reproduced on the Earth where Menkaura pyramid is displaced in the came manner to the east from straight line formed by Khafra pyramid (analogue of an average star, Al-Nilam) and by Great pyramid which represents a star Al-Nitak. It is absolutely clear that three monuments are placed on a coherent plan which with high accuracy models an arrangement of these three stars... Thus in Giza they have represented Orion Belt on the Earth" (Bjuvell). (see Fig.14).
"In 10450 year BC - and only! - pyramids disposition on the Earth precisely reflects stars disposition on the sky. I mean ideal conformity, correctly, and it can not be casual as whole complex correctly displays two enough unusual heavenly phenomena which occurred only at this time. First, absolutely casually the Milky Way as it was seen in Giza in 10450 BC precisely reproduced meridian direction of Nile valley; second, to the west from Milky Way three stars of Orion Belt were at minimal height according to precession cycle..." (Bjuvell).
It is necessary to specify here that real mutual position of Orion Belt stars nevertheless essentially differs from relative positioning of Giza pyramids as show modern programs of astronomical modeling - RedShift and StarCal. The deviation of the third star of Orion Belt from straight line during all period past from middle of XI millennium BC does not fall outside the limits of 7-8 degrees while a deviation of the third pyramid on Giza plateau from straight line makes all of 10 degrees. So it is necessary to talk only about approximate "reproduction" of stars disposition on plateau.
Other thing is that there is one more moment which can connect time of pyramids construction to this date. The matter is that in day of spring equinox 10450 BC at the moment of sunrise Orion Belt not only is at minimal height above horizon but also settles down strictly in the south...
Irrespective of Bjuvell’s astronomical researches West, on the basis of the analysis of Sphinx surface erosion and of Egypt’s climatic conditions, has investigated according to age of the Sphinx located near to Giza pyramids and entering with them in the uniform complex. Results of his researches (adduced here in statement of Henkok) again turn our attention to XI millennium BC.
"Erosion of the Sphinx and of environmental it trench which have been cut down in a rock is a result of influence not of wind but of strong rains which during thousand years poured on them long before the Ancient Empire has appeared on light" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"As show a photo of the Sphinx and of trench walls which made by Santoy Faiya the surface structure is characterized by a combination deep vertical furrows and wavy horizontal flutes, speaking words of Shoh - "it is classical example from the textbook of that occurs to limestone structure if rain waters it during several thousand years... Absolutely clearly that erosion of such kind is caused by rains"" (ibidem).
"Wind-sand erosion gives other structure of surface: horizontal crack-form channels with sharp edges which result from strengthened deterioration of softer stone layers. Under no circumstances it does not result in occurrence of vertical grooves which are especially good appreciable on walls of trench" (ibidem).
"It is supposed that the Sphinx was built by Khafra about 2500 BC, but from the beginning of the dynastic period, say, about 3000 BC, on Giza plateau there were simple not enough rains to cause such extensive erosion that we can observe on Sphinx body. You should get into times up to 10000 BC to meet in Egypt a climate damp enough that erosion of such type and of such scale would take place. It follows from here that the Sphinx should be built up to 10000 BC" (ibidem).
"...Position [of West] was supported almost by 300 participants of annual conference of the Geological society of America in 1992" (ibidem).
Despite of all resistance of official Egyptology it is necessary to recognize doubtfulness of casual concurrence of results of pyramids dating by different researchers and to agree that Giza pyramids were constructed not only after the Flood, but also through rather small time interval after it.
Confirmation of the given conclusion can be found in mythology, to be exact - in mythology connected to the Zodiac. As it is known the Sphinx has a figure of lion and the lion on Zodiac symbolism (not suffered essential changes during all own existence) concerns to the so-called Lion’s era beginning approximately in middle of XI millennium BC, i.e. to time when the Sun in spring equinox day ascends in area of Lion constellation.
And moreover the mythology obviously emphasizes connection of Lion era with the Flood.
"Whether are available... evidences of the zodiac at the moment of flood? It was found out two such evidences. One of them contains in ancient-Babylon New Year's holiday ritual where it is spoken about "constellation of the Lion which measures depth of waters". Other evidence was revealed in small cuneiform tablet where it is spoken that the Flood has taken place when Nibiru planet [identified by other source with the Sun] was in constellation of the Lion" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
"...Egyptians placed on flood-gates of irrigational channels sluices directing water on fields the image of lion's head with open mouth. From here also the custom to decorate fountains with open lion's mouth from which water is poured out has begun which kept still now. Plutarh wrote that there was a usage to put at temples doors figures of lions ejecting water from mouth. And Egyptians represented flooding itself as a lion whom they named "the guard of waters" (N.Mamuna, "The Zodiac of mysteries").
Now we shall be moved from east hemisphere to western one where surprisingly we find out object reminding Giza pyramids up to a pain (Fig.15).
"In thirty miles to northeast from present Mexico-City Teotiuakan is located which called by Asteks as "the Place of gods". Undoubtedly it was one of the most sacred places in ancient America. It agrees to Asteks legends, the Sun and the Moon were born and time began just here, on the central plateau of Mexico. These legends have found reflection in two main monuments of Teotiuakan - pyramids of the Sun and of the Moon. Pyramids tower above environmental landscape - height of one is 212, of another - 140 ft" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
"In Teotiuakan three main pyramids are constructed exactly as in Giza: pyramid and temple of Ketsal’koatl’, pyramid of the Sun and pyramid of the Moon. Precisely as well as in Giza the lay-out of construction is not symmetric, as it would be possible to expect, and two constructions are located against each other but the third is deliberately displaced aside [see Fig.14]. And at last in Giza tops of the Great pyramid and of Khefren’s pyramid are at one level though the height of first is more than the height of second. Similarly in Teotiuakan tops of pyramids of the Sun and of the Moon are at one level though the first is higher. The difference of height of pyramids in both cases compensates a difference of levels of the bases" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
( Strictly speaking, here speech should go only about approximate similarity too as the deviation of pyramid of the Moon from straight line connecting other two basic Teotiuakan constructions is already almost 14 degrees …)
Moreover "...the number "pi" is involved ...at dimensions of the Great pyramid in Giza and of pyramid of the Sun in Teotiuakan. This connection on both sides of Atlantic is made out by similar image, not leaving doubt that architects of those places were well familiar with this transcendental number.. Initial height of the Great pyramid makes 147 meters, perimeter of the basis - 920 meters; accordingly the ratio of these sizes is 6,28 (2 "pi"), that is equal to the ratio of circle length to its radius..." (ibidem).
"Now we shall consider pyramid of the Sun in Teotiuakan. The inclination corner of its lateral sides makes 43,5 degrees (in comparison with 52 degrees at the Great pyramid), that is the form of the Mexican monument more gentle. The perimeter of its basis is 895 meters, not much less than at the Egyptian colleague, but the height is much less (before Bartres-"restoration" it made about 71 meter)... Here already formula not 2 "pi" as in a case with the Great pyramid but 4 "pi" "works"! That is the ratio of basis perimeter of the Sun pyramid to its height is equaled 4 "pi"" (ibidem).
Similarity hardly can be casual.
“...The fact that sizes of both constructions are connected by similar ratio testifies not only to existence of the advanced mathematical knowledge in antiquity but also of some common purpose” (ibidem).
The common character of building purpose of so similar constructions complexes is emphasized also by ancient legends:
"According [to legends of Central America] the Gods City named so because sovereigns buried there after death were not exposed to decay but turned to gods... Differently it was "the place where people became gods". Besides this place was known as "the abode of those who knows road to gods" and "the place where they makes gods"" (ibidem).
"Whether is simple concurrence... that the same religious purpose is pursued with three pyramids in Giza? Ancient hieroglyphic "Texts of Pyramids", the most ancient monuments of writing in the world, do not leave place for doubts in ultimate goal of rituals which were carried out in these enormous constructions: to make transformation of deceased pharaoh, "to fling open gates the heavenly arch and to clear the way" on which he could "rise in community of gods"" (ibidem).
And according to researches of last decades pyramid form itself is capable to cause changes biological and physical processes occurring inside pyramid. Including, under certain conditions the organic matter inside pyramid (even inside its simple model) is not exposed to decay but become mummified. Besides researchers mark that maximal effects are observed at strict geographical orientation of pyramids.
Let's leave in side a mass of arising in this connection questions which are rather fascinating and are capable to make a subject of separate research. We shall profit only by that at such similarity of two complexes of constructions it will rather logical to recognize that with very big degree of probability both objects (Giza and Teotiuakan) had certain uniform purpose and common (or coordinated) authorship.
However Teotiuakan constructions have no so rigid attachment to graticule in distinction from Giza pyramids. Besides Teotiuakan constructions are rigidly attached to each other and to the certain direction too.
"It is similar, amazingly high engineering was applied at a laying of city [Teotiuakan]. The main street of city - street of Dead - lasts absolutely directly during two miles, and archeological researches testify that any rather perfect devices were applied to direction definition during its creation. Further, all lay-out is based on deviation from the north-south direction on 15,5 degrees..." (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium"). (see Fig.16).
If we shall look at the globe we shall be possible to notice that continuation of an axis of Teotiuakan attachment results us in that area where presumably there was a North Pole earlier (before the Flood).
Taking into account rigid attachment of Giza pyramids to modern North Pole and obvious connection of two constructions complexes, it is logical to state the following hypothesis: Teotiuakan also was oriented on "pre-Flood" North Pole as Giza pyramids are oriented on modern North Pole nowadays. Only "slip" of earth's crust under influence of meteorite falling accompanied with the Flood and with changing of all coordinate attachments has resulted Teotiuakan to its modern "incongruous" attachment to a corner 15,5o.
Two conclusions follow at once from here. First, if Giza pyramids were constructed directly after the Flood then in case of common authorship of two objects the construction of complex in Teotiuakan was carried out directly before the Flood. Differently, Teotiuakan is the pre-Flood construction (in literal sense), that indirectly proves to be true also by myths.
"In one from [Asteks] legends it is told that once the whole Earth has plunged into darkness - only in Teotiuakan sacred fire has remained to burn. Then gods have gathered on council in Teotiuakan and tried to actuate stopped Sun and Moon. That agrees to different variants of legend sometimes gods shot from a bow, sometimes the god of a wind blew to move the Sun. Anyhow, the Sun and the Moon again came in movement and the world was rescued. Asteks have made to itself representation from this legend that time at any moment has stopped and then has again come in movement. Since then Teotiuakan pyramids are associated with the Sun and the Moon at them. The impression is created that pyramids of the Sun and of the Moon were constructed in commemoration of that day when the Sun has not risen. Whether it was real event, and if yes when it has taken place?" (ibidem).
The given legend obviously contacts events of the Flood, and it follows from its content that Teotiuakan was already constructed (!!!) to that time, i.e. it is pre-Flood construction... And as all lay-out of it corresponds to coherent plan pyramids hardly were constructed considerably after this event – it is most likely that they put together with all other constructions a single whole and thus performed main functional role.
And second, it becomes possible to determine more precisely the position of old North Pole on base of given Teotiuakan attachment: if both complexes were so rigidly attached to graticule and both are so similar it is logical to assume that Teotiuakan was up to the Flood (i.e. up to earth's crust "slip") at the same latitude as Giza complex (in relation to modern North Pole) is nowadays.
Measuring in a direction 15,5o from Teotiuakan the same distance on what Giza is removed from modern North Pole, we shall receive a point with approximate coordinates 51o of western longitude and 71o of northern latitude (Fig.17). North Pole was presumably just at this place up to falling in XI millennium BC of meteorite, caused powerful cataclysm on surface of our planet though certainly discounting errors during estimations it is necessary to expand region of "pre-Flood" North Pole position to 2-3 degrees (that is much better of some tens degrees range for previous estimations).
10. Climatic consequences of the Flood
The found displacement of poles - 2100 km - appears near to the bottom limit of a range (2-3 thousand kilometers) of tentative estimations received from climatic changes.
However even such "minimal" displacement actually is enough to provide climate change having place if to take into account the important role not so much only "latitude" displacement of crust but and caused by it changes of oceans temperature mode which (according to a modern science) is one of determinatives in formation of climate on our planet.
Say for Northern hemisphere (see Fig.18): modern rather "warm" mode of Arctic ocean in many respects is provided with the warm Atlantic current Gulf-Stream penetrating far to the north.
The position of North Pole in area of Greenland (in area of calculated coordinates) sets completely other temperature mode of northern part of Atlantic, that quite could have consequence both other direction of the stream and its temperature. And really from available data "it is known... that the direction of warm current Gulf Stream in this period has changed" (V.Babakin, "The greatest riddles of the past"), that quite can be consequence of earth's crust "slip" and thawing of "old" pole ice.
For Southern hemisphere (Fig.19) we have just opposite picture. The modern cold climate of Antarctica is provided in particular and for that as though closed ring from cold streams is formed in ocean around of continent interfering penetration on the south of warm equatorial waters.
And "Pre-Flood" position of the South Pole sets completely other heating mode, providing at the same time and other oceanic streams mode which quite could result to that the significant part of Antarctica was free from ice (it was already spoken about that), rivers flew and life prospered there.
Thus, general results of calculations give a picture rather close to available objective data.
11. Astronomical analysis of eyewitnesses evidences
More exact definition of site of "pre-Flood" North Pole allows to determine also more precisely meteorite falling place which as it was already spoken should be on the same line with all four poles (old and new Southern and Northern poles).
From calculated position of old North Pole follows that the meteorite has fallen on a meridian close to 130o of east longitude. In this area there is a hollow in the center of Philippine sea (see Fig.10 and Fig.12).
The knowledge of exact meteorite falling place and of Earth poles displacement at this falling allows to carry out one more analysis mythology data.
At ancient Indians of America the Flood event frequently contacted with symbolism of lightning. Both aboriginals of Australia and Oceania named atmospheric trace of meteorite which has fallen in area of the Philippine sea as "rainbow" and American Indians quite could use for this purpose image of "lightning". And though the distance between area of ancient civilization of South America and Philippine sea conforms to ten-hour difference in time, it appears that Indians quite could see a meteorite falling from southeast to area of present Philippine sea.
Let's consider in more detail what myths speak about it...
"Andes mythology names year - and even hours between twilight and dawn conducting to sunrise of June solstice - when the whole world was destroyed by "Flood"" (U.Sallivan, "Secrets of Inks").
"...That area of the sky which associated with western Twins in their crossing with Milky Way is connected in Andes mythologies to a place of heavenly fire origin" (ibidem).
"Astek’s god of war Uitsilopochtli identified with the sun was born in struggle against his brothers, "four hundred southern stars" which vainly aspired to kill him" (ibidem).
"In Kiche-Maya legend Pleiades most are frequently mentioned as "four hundred boys". In displaying sensation of danger on life of the Sun expressed in "warlike" actions of motionless stars sphere Astek’s myth does original hint on a role of Pleiades in death of the Fourth Sun" (ibidem).
But just "death of the Fourth Sun" corresponds to the Flood in Andes myths...
As it is possible to see, the mythology mentions at once three heavenly objects in connection with the Flood: congestion of Pleiades, constellation of a Taurus and constellation of Twins. But Pleiades are in constellation of Taurus which adjoins to Twins. Means, the question is about the same region of star sky.
The constellation of Taurus is known nowadays as well to that from its area one of largest meteoric streams annually falls to the Earth. It occurs in the period from October, 20 up to November, 30.
If to take into account only wobbling of Earth orbit it is possible to receive that in XI millennium BC this meteoric stream should fall upon the Earth in May. But if to admit for this time an opportunity some other crossing of Earth orbit with orbit of Taurus meteoric stream (see Fig.20) or wobbling of orbit meteoric stream itself that meteorite falling in June from this meteoric stream connected to Pleiades and Taurus is quite probable (though by and large, meteorite "origin" has no presence of value and it can not be a member of given meteoric stream).
Further. Exact enough knowledge of earth's crust displacement in result of "slip" and knowledge of Earth orbit wobbling allow to reproduce (even rather roughly) state of star sky in any point of the Earth both after the Flood and before it. That analysis was carried out by the author with the help of computer program RedShift of company Maris Multimedia (see later) for regions of Andes and Philippine sea at the moment of meteorite falling, basing for time specified in myths.
Provisional state of western part of star sky for area of Andes in twilight before dawn in day of summer solstice in first half XI millennia BC (provided that meteorite has not fallen yet) with the account wobbling and further crust "slip" is shown on Fig.21. And on Fig.22 provisional state of star sky is shown at supervision from area of Philippine sea at the same time moment.
From resulted figures it is visible that, first, at time moment indicated by mythology both Twins constellation of and Taurus constellation (together with Pleiades included in it) are at southeast from Philippine sea that coincides with determined direction of fallen meteorite trajectory.
Second, from Andes region at the same moment the given area of star sky appears slightly to the south of horizon western point that coincides with position of modern Philippine sea area but still before earth's crust "slip".
Falling on background of Taurus constellation to a place where the Twins constellation has just gone the meteorite which has caused the Flood quite could give the reason to American Indians "to accuse" Pleiades, Taurus constellation and Twins constellation in generation by them of cataclysm with darkness "swallowed up the Fourth Sun".
Let's note also that the time moment which for South America concerns to twilight before dawn corresponds to day in Europe. Thus time of cataclysm indicated in Andes mythology is quite coordinated to Greek’s legend about Phaeton according which events have taken place in broad daylight.
"...All ground with amazement has seen how the magnificent Sun instead of following in the eternal and majestic way suddenly has become in somersaults and has headlong fallen down similarly to a meteor..." (legend about Phaeton).
There are also other cataclysm eyewitnesses who give us next portion of the data for analysis.
"On Palau islands which are in the extreme west of Oceania nearby to Philippines they speaks that gods have sent a flood on people for their sins during a full moon" (N.Mamuna, "The Zodiac of mysteries").
"...One of Polynesian legends says: "And, to time of a full moon the strong storm with downpour has burst. The sea began to rise all above sinking islands, it has broken off mountains and has demolished any human habitation. People did not know where to be rescued and everything were lost except for one just woman saved on raft"" (ibidem).
Really, if Andes Indians observed falling of meteorite at pre-dawn o'clock and if this day there was full moon natives of western part of Pacific ocean quite could see full Moon in the sky (at them there has come evening at this moment).
But as far as probably such coincidence: meteorite falling occurs in day of summer solstice, moreover and at full moon?.. It Appears, it quite can be...
Taking into account that Earth duration is equal 365,256 days and full change of Moon phases occurs with 29,53 day interval, it is easily possible to determine that Moon is in the same phase in the same day of calendar year each 19 years. And moreover during this 19-years cycle the Moon still twice is in the same phase in the same calendar day - in 8 and 11 years after beginning of 19-years cycle.
But it is not absolutely exact. Actually there is some slow displacement of concrete Moon phase date: say, full moon comes hardly later gradually from cycle to cycle. As RedShift program shows, there is additional cycle approximately in 535 years as a result of it.
Further. Also it is necessary to take into account that for ordinary observer the full moon is not single-moment event (as say for the astronomer or the astrologist). Usually if not clouds prevent we monthly see practically "full" Moon during three-four days.
In view of all aforesaid it turns out that as a result of available rotation of Moon around Earth and Earth around Sun an approximately 60 years period is formed, during which almost full Moon can be observed in day of summer solstice as a minimum of 10 times. Then there comes a break almost in 500 years, during which coincidence of full moon with summer solstice practically does not occur.
Estimated calculations with help of RedShift program give the following result: in XI millennium BC similar "period of full moon in day of summer solstice" took place twice - from 11015 up to 10955 year BC and from 10480 up to 10420 year BC. As it is possible to see period from 10480 up to 10420 year BC is coordinated to conjectural time of meteorite falling. And really, inhabitants of western part of Pacific ocean could observe full Moon directly per day (more precisely – per evening) of Flood.
Thus, "cross-examination" of eyewitnesses in three Earth regions removed from each other (Greece, Oceania, South America) reveals practically full coincidence of evidences...
12. New characters
As a whole it is possible to tell that in plural own versions Flood’s Myth appears some form of stylized and rather detailed chronicle of real events happened on our planet in XI millennium BC. And if many details of given chronicle sustain versatile check on reliability (or at least on logic and on un-discrepancy) we are simply obliged to perceive very and very seriously other details of this historical heritage.
In particular, almost all versions of Flood’s Myth reveal participation in described events of certain reasonable creatures sharply distinguished from people both on abilities and on a level of development. More often they appear under the name "gods", but it is necessary to take into account that behind exception of later versions of Flood history (like the Old Testament) other contents is meant under given term than it does today. Gods of ancient myths are more similar to people than to certain all-penetrate, all-begetting and all-determining incognizable creatures of modern religions.
Certainly, it is possible to stay on position of official history categorically rejected serious perception of descriptions of creatures having including "supernatural" (from viewpoint of modern science) abilities and to continue to count such creatures as only generation of religious imaginations of our ancestors. This is private affair of each reader... The author prefers to adhere to that viewpoint that historical truth grain contains in each myth - whether it is the science, religion or ancient tradition, and it is necessary only correctly "to separate grains from darnels".
The theme of gods in mythology is extremely many-sided and practically inexhaustible... Only some aspects of their essence and activity concerning considered period of human history here. And actions connected directly with cataclysm of XI millennium BC will interest us first of all.
In set of versions of Flood’s Myth it is pointed to that before the cataclysm gods notify people about approaching trouble and prompt them ways of rescue. Both from this fact and from description details of these events it is already possible to make some conclusions.
And first of all: gods foreknew about cataclysm.
Under one of versions (enough widespread) gods have deliberately caused Flood to destroy people which have had been guilty before them. Such antihuman act exposes representatives of supreme reason (i.e. gods) in rather unattractive aspect, but in their "justification" it is possible to tell that the given version prevails only in later variants of myths in which probability of distortion of events having place in so remote reality is very great.
And though the author regards rather skeptically to given version of reasons of XI millennium BC cataclysm, it is necessary to note that it can be enough correctly compatible with "meteoric nature" of Flood. Gods, be they supernatural essences or simply representatives of advanced civilization, quite could choose asteroid of appropriate sizes as the tool of realization of bad intentions and could correct its orbit...
Under other version cataclysm was only by-product of internal quarrels between gods (that does not exclude meteoric reason of Flood too).
One of earliest versions impresses the author most of all: gods had no any direct relation to reasons of accident.
"...In epic poem "Atrahasys" it is spoken that bible "god" was really not "the uniform God" but "many gods". Further in this narration stated in detail on tablets it is spoken that "these gods" have not intentionally sent the Flood . Really at gods council decision was accepted that it is necessary to keep from people a secret of approach of Flood which gods be unable to prevent" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
"In "Poem about Gilgamesh" it is contained alive and drama description of last preparations and to the hero it is ordered to observe of gods departure [because of Flood]... After... waters have calmed down gods have come back to the Earth" (ibidem).
Appearing involuntary witnesses of meeting of Earth with asteroid, gods for any reasons could not (and can be, have not wanted) to prevent given space event. But being creatures more educated (to what practically all myths point), they appeared capable to foresee or to count its consequence.
The fact of practically full conformity of "divine" warnings to those consequences which really took place attracts attention to itself. So say, for regions located nearby from sea coast or at lowlands the greatest threat was water element (tsunami and/or rise of sea level). Inhabitants of these regions have received warning from gods about "flood" together with recommendation of rescue on buoyant means.
In India "Visnha [god] has warned Mana [person] about future flood. He has sent him big ship and ordered to ship in pair of all alive creatures and seeds of all plants on it, and then to sit there itself" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"In 1914 Arne Pebel has published translation Shumerian tablet kept in Philadelphia, at museum of Pennsylvania university. In them it is told that devout and pious tsar Ziusurda has received instruction from Utu (god of sun) and departed by ship, being rescued from the Flood raged seven days and seven nights" (V.Batsalev, A.Varakin, "Secrets of archeology").
In some foothill regions of South America relatives to the sea ships and boats were not necessary and people received from gods council to be rescued from the Flood on high mountains.
For regions located in depth of continent or high above sea level the water element was not terrible; "shock winter" could have much more dangerous consequences. Here (according to myths of South America Andes and of Iranian plateau) gods warn people about coming nearer colds, recommend to construct warm shelter and to reserve provisions.
Mentions of any warnings of people from gods do not practically meet in mythology in area of meteorite falling (region around of Philippine sea). It is clear: chances to survive were very and very little for somebody here...
Such "insight" of gods does not demand from them presence any supernatural abilities as even modern knowledge of our civilization quite allow to calculate time and a place of meteorite falling when it (God forbid!) approach the Earth on dangerous distance and also to estimate probable consequences of similar event. After all, gods, according to myths, much more surpassed our level of development in a lot of positions...
Thus, presence of additional characters in mythology about the Flood does not contradict logic of realness of historical picture. Even the mention that gods after cataclysm "have returned waters on a place", "have dispersed clouds", "have placed again Sun, Moon and stars on the sky" does not demand without fail from gods presence of supernatural abilities . If one has advanced system of supervision and forecasting of geological and climatic processes, that counting beforehand any events (say, the stopping earth's crust "slip" or approach of clear weather), he is possible to present them in eyes of primitive spectators as the "result" of own actions and to exploit it. But someone hardly will undertake seriously to challenge the fact that acts of gods in ancient myths are frequently rather far from disinterested deeds...
13. Architecture of "Flood period"
Now time has come to return to reference points on which basis the author determined probable position of North Pole up to earth's crust "slip" (i.e. up to the Flood): to constructions of Teotiuakan and to pyramids on Giza plateau. Accepting XI millennium BC for date of their construction, the author has entered in sharp contradiction with official historical viewpoint, according to which pyramid of Giza plateau were constructed only in III millennium BC and complex Teotiuakan was constructed still later.
The author hopes that reader is capable to accept quietly enough similar historical "heresy" in view of that geological and arheo-astronomic last time researches also refer erection at least Sphinx and pyramids on Giza plateau to XI millennium BC (see earlier). Besides eyewitnesses of events - our ancestors support given point of view too.
So say, Teotiuakan’s Indians not only categorically rejected own participation in its erection but also specified gods as authors of construction. Moreover as mythology says, from Teotiuakan pyramids and with their help gods restored the order in the sky after Flood that sets enough rigid binding on time to the period of cataclysm (XI millennium BC) and supposes "pre-Flood" erection of given complex.
Ancient Egyptians were so categorical in attitude both Sphinx and pyramids on Giza plateau .
"...Egyptians more than once emphasized that Sphinx is much ancient then Hefren... that in one of inscriptions of IV dynasty to which pharaoh Hefren appertained it was spoken about Sphinx as about monument which origin secret is lost in gloom of times; that it was found casually during IV dynasty" (V.Babakin, "The biggest riddles of the past").
"Egyptians trusted that gods with participation "the god of wisdom Toht" have erected pyramid in Giza in time of "Golden Age" when gods lived on the ground..." (R.Bjuvel, E.Dzhilbert, "Secrets of pyramids").
"Stone with inventory as it have named was found by French archeologist Ogjustom Mariettom in Giza in XIX century. Its occurrence has caused effect of exploded bomb because from its text precisely followed both the Great Sphinx and the Great pyramid (and some constructions on plateau) existed long before that Hufu sat on throne. In inscription also Isida was called as "the Mistress of pyramid", meaning that monument was devoted to the goddess of magic but not to Hufu at all" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
It is strange that official historical science prefers to not notice also obvious contradiction between "namelessness" of Sphinx and of Giza pyramids and directly pathological aspiration of ambitious pharaohs to award to himself authorship of majestic constructions of ancestors (official Egyptology does not doubt in availability such tradition of pharaohs). Neither Sphinx nor Giza pyramids do not have any identification author's marks (the unique found inscription inside Great pyramid now is recognized as archeological falsification) in conditions of very extremely saturation inscriptions of overwhelming majority of Ancient Egypt monuments.
It is more stranger that official history categorically does not want to notice technological "nonsense" found out in these constructions. Say, directly improbable degree of accuracy achieved by ancient builders in the Great pyramid is widely known. And this perfection of execution is not limited to already mentioned above accuracy of pyramid orientation on light sides.
"Confidently and effectively being amused with more than six millions tons of stone, creating galleries, chambers, shafts and corridors, achieving almost ideal orientation on key points, mysterious builders of Great pyramid found time and for other focuses including sizes of huge monument" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"...Sizes of slabs [of facing] are sustained with accuracy about 0,2 millimeters, and joints are adjusted so it is impossible to push penknife edges between them. "Even only laying slabs with such accuracy is achievement but making it with cement sheaf is almost impossible thing" (U.M.Flinders Petry)" (ibidem).
"...Southeast corner does slightly not reach up to direct one and makes 89o56’27”. The size of northeast corner is 90o3’2”, of southwest is 89o56’27”, and for northwest it does not suffice two seconds (89o59’58”)" (ibidem).
"...The basis of Great pyramid of Heops has... less than one-centimeter inclination during 230 meters that makes mistake approximately 0,004 percents" (J.Malina, R.Malinova, "Natural accidents and newcomers from space").
The highest level of skill of ancient builders can be noticed not only in "external" characteristics of pyramid but also in its internal structure (see Fig.23).
"Accuracy of corridor construction is startling: on whole its extent from top to bottom the average deviation from straight line does not exceed six millimeters on walls, eight - on ceiling" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
And it is under condition of bent of huge blocks!!!
"In dimensions of sarcophagus [in king chamber] it has not done without certain mathematical games. So, its internal volume is 1166,4 liters, external two times as great - 2332,8 liters. It is impossible to consider as casual concurrence such accuracy (up to fifth significant figure), and walls... are processed by masters of highest qualification and experience with accuracy which only modern machine tools can provide" (ibidem).
"Certainly, this is outstanding accuracy. And as almost everything connected to Great pyramid, it gives in to an explanation with big work. So exact building engineering (its accuracy is at a level of the best modern samples) could be formed only after thousand years of development and experiments. However there are no traces of such evolutionary process in Egypt. Great pyramid and it neighbours on Giza have arrived as though from a black hole in architecture history, such deep and wide that it is not visible neither its bottom nor sides" (ibidem).
"Why in presumably "primitive" stone monument constructed over 4500 years back we meet with strange all-consuming aspiration to correspond to accuracy standards of machine civilization times?" (ibidem).
Neglecting all these "details" the official historical science persistently continues to attribute construction of Giza pyramids to ancient Egyptians of times of IV pharaohs dynasty (III millennium BC).
Only imagine this picture: people which cultivate soil with stone or at the best copper mattocks prove to be capable to erect with improbable accuracy huge constructions, making at this time in industrial amounts that our modern civilization is capable to make in piece copies only.
"Only to one Heops pyramid it is spent about 6,3 million tons of stone blocks that cut down in stone quarries and carefully processed" (R.Bjuvel, E.Dzhilbert, "Secrets of pyramids").
"Occupying the area of 5,4 hectares, it weighs over six millions tons... and consists... from 2,3 million blocks of limestone and granite. 8,9 hectares of mirror smooth facing were added to this in the old days..." (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"The making of each facing block by area of twenty square meters is equivalent to polishing of telescope mirror on mountain Palomar (USA). To understand greatness of work of Egyptians it is enough to recollect that it was twenty seven thousand of such blocks. Thousands years back it was possible to them to make serially that modern industry of building materials produces only under the mark of manual manufacture " (N.Nepomnjashchy, "On traces of giants").
The civilization based on primitive agriculture and stock-raising, not had still even a knowledge of ferrous metallurgy (i.e. manufactures of iron) appears capable to erect enormous constructions oriented on light sides at a limit of modern geodetic tools opportunities.
People not acquainted with higher mathematics and elementary physical laws find and realize the constructional decisions which is perfect from viewpoint of study of materials strength.
"Ponderous blocks of overlapping showed example... of skill [of builders] - each of them was stowed slightly more steeply than common corner of gallery inclination. According to opinion of large archeologist and geodesist Flinders Petry, it was made "in order that the bottom corner of each stone entered into groove cut in the top part of wall as trigger enters into ratchet wheel; accordingly any stone does not press on previous and their pressure is not summarized on whole roof; each stone is kept separately by lateral walls"" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
The technical analysis of processing traces of granite from which "sarcophagus" in King chamber is made amazes very more.
"[The Sarcophagus is cut out from granite block of very high hardness by absolutely unknown tool]. Still great mystery surrounds sarcophagus internal cavity processing which represents considerably more great complexity than cutting from block of rock" (ibidem).
"It is worthy surprise speed with which saws and drills passed through stone to which the value of astonishment cutting forces testifies; apparently, loading not less than 1-2 tons operated on 100-millimetric drills when granite drilling. At granite core No 7 spiral groove left by cutting tool has a step along an axis of the aperture equal to one inch (25,4 mm) with 6 inches (152,4 mm) of circle length of an aperture; tremendous speed of cutting corresponds this... It is impossible to explain such geometry of spiral scratches anything besides that drill supply was carried out under huge loading..." (ibidem).
To receive achieved result character of surface processing of "sarcophagus" requires (from viewpoint of modern engineering) using ... of ultrasonic drill or gas-dynamical laser during its manufacturing!!! But Egyptians ostensibly made it by copper tools...
The picture instead of fantastic becomes more and more crazy...
And it would be desirable to advise historians even occasionally to get acquainted with technical achievements of our civilization and to consult with experts from other fields. Then in their reconstruction of the past will be, at least, less of absurdity...
But for now it is possible to ascertain that myths version of gods as authors of Giza pyramids appears much closer to normal logic than official Egyptology does. And the more they found out technical and constructional details incorporated in Giza pyramids (equally as in Teotiuakan pyramids), the more and more arguments are collected by that viewpoint according to which the man simply not could to build given constructions.
With this conclusion all logic contradictions are resolved by themselves because in definition of dating of construction of Giza and Teotiuakan complexes we cease to be constrained by current level of development of human civilization known to us. In that case the version of construction of Teotiuakan and Giza complex in XI millennium BC ceases to make shocking impression, and the epicenter of intense emotions moves to question about presence on the Earth in these ancient times of some advanced civilization of "gods" which our ancestors did not try to name "people".
14. It is a little more "heresy"
The first question which automatically arises in this case is: what this advanced civilization is and whence it has appeared?..
If to reject absolutely mystical variants of answers to given question it appears that there are only two versions to present time. According to one of them in the past on our planet there was a human race of Atlantis, reached the highest level of development and perished during Flood.
We shall not examine here all set of arguments pro É contra existence of Atlantis because given theme can be analyzed very long, and we shall be limited only to some reasons.
If to proceed from the theory of earth's crust "slip" and from hypothesis of meteoric nature of cataclysm of XI millennium BC, it is necessary to recognize impossibility of preservation (or reaching) of exact geographical orientation of Giza complex in case of its construction before the Flood (see above). But if, as we believe, Giza pyramids were constructed after Earth crust "slip", i.e. after the Flood, the version of their construction by Atlantis comes into contradiction with the most fundamental thesis of hypothesis about Atlantida - thesis about Atlantis destruction during the Flood. It is impossible to construct something material, having been lost preliminary before that...
Adherents of reality of Atlantida sometimes put forward also such assumption: pyramids are constructed by not numerous survived during flood Atlantis whose civilization could not recover from such cataclysm and gradually degraded up to primitive condition. But if there are forces and opportunities to create such unique constructions as Giza complex, why there are no forces (or intellect) to keep knowledge and to revive civilization instead of return to primitive existence?.. And this attempt of Atlantologists "to keep the face" proves to be contradicting elementary logic.
Other hypothesis about advanced ancient civilization is based on its extraterrestrial origin. And such "fantastic" it seem, and as though it neither would frighten people who prevent his consciousness from the fact of an opportunity of existence of more advanced civilization and of it contact with mankind in antiquity, the author is declined to adhere to this hypothesis.
First, because the version of alien authorships both of complexes of Giza and of Teotiuakan, and many others so-called antiquity megalithic constructions (which we do not consider here) during thorough examination appears the least contradicting to available archeological data, rather than anyone other of versions existing at all.
And second, because the mythology (of which truthfulness we were already enough convinced) almost by direct text points to extraterrestrial origin of huge constructions authors of the past .
"...Shimerians ...named their gods AN.UNNA.KI, that in literal translation means: "Those who has come down from Heavens to the Earth"" (A.Elford, "Gods of new millennium").
Here we are not capable to envelop all aspects of hypothesis (but for the author – of the fact) of presence on the Earth of extraterrestrial civilization at the past owing to extreme extensiveness of given theme. Therefore we shall stop only on those questions which are connected with considered here epoch of XI millennium BC . And even more narrowly: we shall stop on questions of construction by extraterrestrial civilization of objects of Giza complex of Teotiuakan.
15. Purpose of huge construction
One of basic questions that inevitably arises before researchers of huge constructions of an antiquity is the purpose of these objects.
"...The greatest interest is caused with the reason of occurrence of such constructions that nobody created up to Egyptians. What for it was required to build their such big and thus to expect all proportions with such surprising accuracy" (R.Bjuvel, R.Dzhilbert, "Secrets of pyramids").
Unfortunately, officially recognized point of view is limited only to two most primitive versions in accordance with which enormous monuments of the past were created or as tombs of pharaohs or for ritual (read - religious) purposes. However neither in Teotiuakan constructions, nor in Giza pyramids still now it is not found out not only any human remains or ritual subjects, but also any evidences of such their assignment at all. And researchers find out the more details about Teotiuakan complex and Giza plateau, they are the less inclined to support these primitive versions.
First of all, neither the grandiose size of constructions, nor the highest accuracy of their construction and orientation are not so necessary for cult objects that anybody would undertake those colossal efforts that (even simply from technological viewpoint) should be spent for achievement of results which is difficult to achieve for our advanced civilization.
Details of constructions are capable to confuse everybody at all. So say, the whole drainage system of water-currents for not clear purpose is found in Teotiuakan pyramids . Relative not long ago it is revealed that the covering of so-called Dead Street has waterproofing properties (i.e. has ability to detain water). And as it was appear in some "temples" builders used even mica for unknown purposes...
"Detection of thick mica layer between two top levels of Sun’s pyramid in Teotiuakan during restoration works in 1906 [surprises]... Later in Teotiuakan it is found some more mica (in the Mica temple)" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"The Mica temple: At once under a floor paved by heavy stone plates archeologists... have found out two massive mica sheets carefully stacked in the far past by people which obviously were able to cut and reject this material. The big sheets of mica were stacked in two layers, one on another" (ibidem).
"As it is known, a mica is not standard material for a floor. Besides here it was stacked under floor in latent from eyes manner, that looks completely inexplicable as similar building design is not revealed not only in ancient America but also anywhere in the world" (ibidem).
"Element structure of mica found in Teotiuakan shows that these sheets concern to such its kind which meets only in Brazil, more than at 3000 kilometers from here. Clearly, that such mica was necessary for temple builders, for the sake of it they were ready to go the god knows where; otherwise they quietly could use mica from nearest deposits" (ibidem).
Two enough obvious conclusions follows from last fact at once.
First, mica was necessary to builders for any unknown for us purposes which quite can be somehow connected to specific properties of mica.
"...As their [mica sheets] mounting way obviously excludes decorative function, it is necessary to assume that any other tasks were assigned on them under the project. It is necessary to mean that mica has a number of properties making it especially attractive for some technical applications. In modern industry it is used in condensers, it is appreciated as thermal and electric isolation. It is opaque to fast neutrons and can be used as delay mechanism in nuclear reactions" (ibidem).
This indirectly proves to be true also that mica of exactly such structure used in Teotiuakan was necessary for builders (there are deposits of mica closer).
And second, disposition at that place where Teotiuakan is located was important for builders. Otherwise it would be possible to construct the given complex in Brazil more closer to a deposit of necessary mica.
Giza Pyramids also have set of "strange" details from which we shall consider only small part on an example of Great pyramid (see Fig.23).
First of all it is similar that primordially the Great pyramid did not at all provide using by people. For its majestic sizes it has "passes" on significant part of which it is possible to move only having bent (their height - hardly more than meter).
As it is known ascending and descending "corridors" and also the Big gallery have strictly verified corner of an inclination in 26o equal the half of inclination corner of pyramid sides. And though this inclination was obviously important to builders who maintained it with fantastic accuracy it is completely inconvenient for moving. In particular, to rise on Big gallery, modern visitors of Great pyramid use artificial flooring allowing to avoid inconveniences of moving on all fours on smoothly ground inclined floor.
Even in horizontal "passes" it is necessary sometimes to jump from "parapet", sometimes to be bent under hanging granite plates, sometimes to overcome incomprehensible "failures" in a floor...
With all these "inconveniences" basic elements of internal design of pyramid also have exact orientation to light sides and perfection of execution as well as whole Great pyramid.
Numerous "strange" details of internal rooms (niches, shafts, symmetric hollows, grooves etc.) even more often cause in researchers of association of pyramid more with a certain technical device, rather than with a tomb or a temple.
This impression considerably amplifies at the analysis of peculiarities of used building materials. So, if the greatest part of blocks of Great pyramid is made of limestone the granite (frequently carefully ground) was used for the most "important" elements of internal design.
"As president SIA "Granul" Dr.Sci.Tech. Jury Karasev asserts natural materials such as a marble and granite not only are not subject to corrosion and are practically eternal but also absolutely harmless to health. From scientific viewpoint all is simple: their full-crystalline structure does not allow neither to absorb nor to conduct any energy" (newspaper "Arguments and Facts").
That is, speaking in other words, the granite is good isolator. And this property of granite definitely has something in common with mentioned above properties of mica used in Teotiuakan. One more similarity of two complexes...
But if Giza pyramids and Teotiuakan complex are certain "technical devices", what is the result of their "works"?.. Myths speak at this theme substantially foggy and vaguely (from viewpoint of modern science) but rather unequivocal.
"According [to legends of Central America] the Gods City named so because buried there sovereigns after death were not exposed to decay but turned to gods... Differently it was "a place where people became gods". Besides this place was known as "a abode of those who knows road to gods" and "a place where it makes gods"" (ibidem).
"Whether is simple concurrence... that the same religious purpose is pursued with three pyramids in Giza? Ancient hieroglyphic "Texts of Pyramids", the most ancient monuments of writing in the world, do not leave a place for doubts in ultimate goal of rituals which were carried out in these enormous constructions: to make transformation of deceased pharaoh, "to fling open gates of the heavenly arch and to clear the way" on which he could "rise in community of gods"" (ibidem).
To find here though any sense it is necessary to recollect that in traditions practically of all known mythologies the person could not "to get on the sky" or "become the god" but only its "soul" could.
Stepping aside discussion about the existence of such phenomenon as "soul", we shall note that supporters of a reality of "soul" consider as its displays those human abilities and properties which the modern science correlates to so-called psychic activity of people. In particular, it correlates not only with sphere of reason but also with area of emotions, internal feelings and sensations. And from such point of view there are interesting subjective impressions of researchers of Great pyramid.
"...I was not the first who stood at the basis of Big gallery in authority of strange sensation as though I was "inside any device"" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
"Passing 2,7 meters on the tunnel you appear in King chamber, entirely from a granite big gloomy red room which creates atmosphere of huge energy and power" (ibidem).
"...Napoleon Buonapart stopped here [in King chamber of Great pyramid] on a lodging for night during a gain of Egypt at the end of XVIII century. The next morning he has appeared pale and shocked, experienced something such that has deeply disturbed him, later he never spoke about it" (ibidem).
Subjective sensations of people having so-called "extra-sensory" abilities (or thinking that they have similar abilities) converge in one: in Teotiuakan complex and on plateau Giza there are vigorous power streams completely unequivocally connected to pyramids.
As if to more objective (from viewpoint of modern science) data then they appear rather interesting too.
"...[Laying in sarcophagus] I have put down hands on a breast and have issued a sound on low note. I already tried to do that in other points of King chamber and walls as though collected a sound, strengthened it and returned to me so I could feel coming back fluctuations by soles of legs, crown and skin" (ibidem).
"In sarcophagus I have felt approximately the same, only amplification and concentration of fluctuations were many times more intensively. The sensation was such as you are in resonant chamber of any huge musical instrument designed for eternally to sound on one rolling note. The sound was intensive..." (ibidem).
But the most impress appear results of numerous experiments which have been carried out by various researchers with constructions and models, having pyramidal form. As it frequently happens casual curiosity has served as a push to these experiments.
"When French Bovi has visited Great pyramid, in the Tomb of tsar in garbage tanks he has noticed dead cats and other fine animals which have casually come in pyramid and were lost there. Their corpses looked rather strange: it was not felt any smell and it was not appreciable attributes of decomposition. Surprised with this phenomenon Bovi surveyed corpses and has found out that they dehydrated and have become mummified despite of humidity in a room" (N.Nepomnjashchy, "On traces of giants").
"Bovi has become interested what is the reason of this surprising phenomenon. Having assumed that the main cause is in the form of pyramid, he has made wooden model of Kheops pyramid which side of the basis was equaled to 90 centimeters and oriented it strictly on the north. Inside of pyramid at a level of one third of height he has put just died cat. In some days a corpse has become mummified. Then Bovi experimented with other organic materials, in particular with that quickly spoil under usual conditions, for example with bull brains. Products did not spoil and Bovi has drawn a conclusion that the form of pyramid has miracle properties" (ibidem).
The given result further was confirmed experimentally by other researchers.
Let's note here that in representations of ancient Egyptians body mummification of the died had the major importance for preservation of his soul and its rise on the sky (with that pyramids including on Giza plateau were directly connected)...
Further experiments with pyramidal form have revealed even more fantastic effects.
Use of pyramids in an agriculture (pyramidal granaries and hothouses) allowed to achieve increase of crops on some tens (!) percents in comparison with control group.
"...In layers under pyramids a viscosity of petroleum has sharply fallen, and efficiency debit of chinks has grown accordingly" (ibidem).
"... What does occur with crystals of salt in a pyramid? They... for some reason start to grow very quickly, get the most perfect forms" (ibidem).
"...They have tried to raise in pyramid... crystals of garnet which is used in laser engineering. But at the first experiment all crucibles in which charge was pawned have unexpectedly burned down. Then some ones more. It is appeared that processed charge receives in pyramid additional energy which is incommensurable with calculated one... Some very expensive platinum-iridium crucibles has burned down before scientists have guessed to lower sharply temperature of crystal extracting from melting. It is appeared that new crystals have any special spectrum. Nobody could to explain whence unknown earlier lines have appeared in it" (ibidem).
"Diamonds synthesized from graphite which has lain about one week in pyramid... have turned out purer and firmer than usual and more perfect under the form" (ibidem).
"In his "First practical book of pyramids" Norman Stark has published the report of Institute of water and soil science of agricultural university of Arizona. In this report all distinctions of properties of water usual and irradiated in pyramid are described. The flowing water placed for day in pyramid appreciably improved own qualities. This phenomenon is confirmed also with professional physicians informing that water in some cases even rendered improving influence on stomach. Also he has noticed that water absorbing in energy of pyramid has taste of pure source" (ibidem).
Also the strongest influence of pyramid form on electromagnetic fields was revealed. It is quite probably this effect was the reason of a failure of recent search attempt of unknown emptiness inside Great pyramid with the help of electromagnetic sounding. Researchers were unable to decipher pictures received at sounding owing to strongest distortions of signals passed through a pyramid.
And though modern physics is not capable to explain so-called "effect of pyramids", very serious scientific cadre are already now involved in its studying . But only some established properties of pyramids will be important for us .
In particular, it was revealed that it is important not only the form of pyramid but also its proportion and also pyramid orientation to light sides.
"Pyramids of various corners and different structure (for example, with a dome) engender energy too. However according to preliminary data the model of Kheops pyramid is the most powerful in this sense. Fast dehydration in it even can kill small animals. And this effect arises only when energy of space concentrates as a beam which is drawn by Earth magnetism. The pyramid needs only to be set precisely on north-south axis because magnetic fields have this orientation" (ibidem).
Besides, as numerous researches show, maximal effects are displayed in the geometrical center of pyramid and above its top.
Let's note that the Big gallery - one of most impressive and carefully executed "details" of pyramid - comes to end in the geometrical center of Great pyramid. Horizontal pass to so-called "King chamber" begins here, this pass abounds in plural not clear details: differences of height, grooves in walls, granite crosspiece etc.
On the other hand according to Egyptian mythology, at the top of Great pyramid there was its major element - stone Ben-Ben.
"According to popular belief, Ben-Ben has fallen from the sky. Unfortunately, it was lost so a long time, that to the moment of Sunuseret accession in 1971 BC anybody did not remember its appearance no longer. At this time (epoch of XII dynasty) in memory it was kept only that it had form of pyramid. Geometry of all subsequent obelisks is resulted from here. And word Ben-Ben began to designate so-called "pyramidion" or pointed stone usually established on the top of pyramid" (G.Henkok, "Traces of gods").
So, from viewpoint of modern knowledge about "effect of pyramids" it is possible to find out logic in that ancient builders needed to adhere precisely Giza pyramids to geographical graticule, i.e. and to North Pole (as well as Teotiuakan complex to "pre-Flood" North Pole).
And if this effect was so important to builders of pyramids it is naturally also to take interest in that was above top of pyramids - in that place where influence of pyramidal form is maximum and where there was certain stone Ben-Ben (on mythology: fallen from the sky, placed by gods on top of Great pyramid, and them taken off from there bit later).
Because, as myths assert, pyramids opened a way to gods we, having turned the look to the sky, can find "place where gods live" (i.e. builders of complex on Giza plateau - according to the same myths). Speaking in other words, for this purpose it is necessary to find astronomical orientation of Giza pyramids.
Thus if earlier given hypothesis about interrelation of Giza pyramids with Teotiuakan complex is true, "pre-Flood" astronomical orientation of Teotiuakan coincides with astronomical orientation of Giza complex.
16. Calculation of astronomical orientation of Giza pyramids
One of major heavenly events in overwhelming majority of world mythologies is the moment of sunrise in day of spring equinox. Actually, all zodiac calendar which is known from most ancient times and which we still use till now is built with a support on this event.
It is possible to list set of arguments proving a choice of the given time moment for our calculations, but it would need the most extensive digression to sphere of ancient astronomy and mythology because connection of religious rituals with position of Sun on background of star sky in day of spring equinox is traced practically in all ancient cultures. We shall refer here only to that remarkable fact that in moment of sunrise in day of spring equinox in 10450 BC the Sphinx included in Giza complex of constructions and having body of lion, "looks" exactly at rising sun which is taking place just in constellation of Lion at this moment. The Lion in zodiac mythology is a symbol of Lion era, symbol of 10450 BC.
Astronomical orientation of pyramids at specified time moment was determined by the author by means of computer program RedShift, allowing to reproduce the star sky in a range only about 4713 BC up to 9999 AD, therefore the basic calculation was carried out for opposition point (from viewpoint of wobbling), i.e. for position of star sky in 2460 AD.
Estimated calculations under program RedShift give position of wobbling pole (point around of which there is a rotation of North Pole of star sky) in modern coordinates RA: 17h58m36s, Dec: 66o37’44" (area of planetary fog "Cat's eye"). Under the same program the angular distance between directions towards opposite points of wobbling circle makes 46o46’, and wobbling period of Earth axis - 25800 years. Change of position of heavenly North Pole owing to wobbling is shown on Fig.24.
Because modern position of Earth appears almost opposite by wobbling cycle comparatively with the moment of construction of Giza pyramids it is rather easy to estimate conditions of their orientation on the base of modern sky condition.
The most rough analysis shows that Orion Belt is almost precisely in the south at the moment of sunset in day of modern spring equinox (at 6.00 p.m. of March,21,1998). Thus:
- The first star of Orion Belt (Al-Nitak) will be strictly in the south in 2375;
- The second star of Orion Belt (Al-Nilam) will be strictly in the south in 2467;
- The third star of Orion Belt (Mintaka) will be strictly in the south in 2545.
It gives average value of "southern" position of Orion Belt in 2460.
In view of turn of heavenly sphere at wobbling it is possible to conclude that at the moment of sunrise in day of spring equinox half of period wobbling back Orion Belt was strictly on southern direction from Giza plateau. It quite can appear the reason of similar arrangement of pyramids from each other (Orion Belt appears thus the brightest and remarkable reference point of southern direction). Date of pyramids construction thus besides appears to equal 10450 BC.
This date in accuracy coincides with modern data of arheo-astronomical calculations (based on mutual position of Orion Belt stars) and of geological estimations (based on degree and quality of deterioration of pyramids and Sphinx).
From Fig.25, showing the star sky position at the moment of pyramids construction, it is clear that the corner between the direction towards North Pole in 2460 AD and the direction towards "area of orientation" of pyramids (we shall conditionally name it so) makes 13o14’. Thus Orion Belt, North Pole in 10450 BC, a direction towards North Pole of 2460 AD and Giza pyramids are in one meridional plane, that gives coordinate of the center of region (for search of a star on which Giza pyramids were directed at the moment of sunrise in day of spring equinox at their construction) in 2460 AD equal RA: 18h00m00s, Dec: 76o46’.
The analysis of star sky in 2460 AD shows that the required region (in view of possible errors of calculations and various approximations, and also fluctuations of Earth axis besides wobbling) is between constellation of Small She-bear and constellation of Giraffe in direction of "tail" of Small She-bear (aside Perseus constellation) with the center in modern coordinates RA: 04h57m35s, Dec: 76o22’24". Found "area of orientation" is shown on Fig.26 and Fig.27.
It is necessary to note that the given area of star sky is included into number "important" in mythologies, though attention of our ancestors to undistinguished constellation of Small She-bear could seem strange because during Egyptian pharaohs (let alone earlier times) heavenly North Pole was on significant distance from modern North star.
"From "Texts of pyramids" we know that both northern and southern stars played important role in ritual of regeneration and had direct connection with star predestination of the deceased tsar. Many researchers, Egyptologists and astronomers wrote about that. The following stars first of all were mentioned: on northern meridian - Big She-bear, Small She-bear and Dragon... On southern meridian the most important were constellations of Orion and of Big Dog (in which there is Sirius). It is necessary to add here constellation of Taurus..." (R.Bjuvell, E.Dzhilbert, "Secrets of pyramids").
In given region there are only stars which are on bound of visibility by unaided sight and which can be shared by remoteness from region center into three probability categories of "center of orientation":
I category - most probable stars,
II category - average probability,
III category - improbable applicants for a rank of "place where gods live".
From astronomical directories (Tab.1 and Tab.2) and Gertsshprung-Rassell diagram (see Fig.28) it follows that at least three stars in researched region are similar to our Sun by physical parameters: BSC 1686, BSC 1468, BSC 1491. "Place where gods live" appears quite favorable for occurrence of extraterrestrial life similar to ours physio-biological parameters.
17. Whether the World will be rescued from the future Flood...
Still Aristotel complained that "Platon was last person who really understood value of mythology". Nowadays the key to ancient legends seems in general irrevocably lost.
However the modern science forces us to look otherwise at this question: reliability of mythology data appears on rather high level at their check on the basis of objective analysis. Myths appear before us not as imaginations of any ancient authors or national fairy tales, but get the status of original description of events and phenomena having place actually.
At the same time conclusions of Egyptologists and other ancient world researchers even rather cautious in their estimations periodically remind "brushed" picture remote from the reality and substantiated by nothing except for own errors and outlook of researchers. Therefore practically anyone in the slightest degree harmonious and logical theory about the Ancient world has right to existence and is nothing worse than officially recognized point of view. The main thing is that the offered theory would passed check on durability at eyewitnesses first of all.
Eventually, time has come to read ancient legends how they are actually without scornful attitude to them.
And at this base in view of considered questions one of mythology thesis is capable to draw special attention.
The matter is that American Indians from most ancient times are deeply adherent to idea that the modern Age which has begun from the Flood shortly should stop the existence. Maya even adduce exact date of the nearest accident:
"This day is 4 Ahau 3 Kankin [that corresponds December, 23, 2012], and it will pass in atmosphere of Sun god, the ninth lord of night. Eight days will be to the Moon, and it will be third of six..."
Probably, astronomers should look more attentively both at this date and on the star sky in searches of next meteorite capable to cause the following flood. From what source Maya would receive knowledge of such meteorite, one is undoubtedly: under conditions of presence of sufficient data about movement of heavenly bodies it is possible to count similar collision capable to result in cataclysm on many millennia forward.
Certainly, give the God that they were mistaken but even if behind this obsession of American Indians there is a severe reality of crossing of Earth orbit with "stone" menacing for us the mankind is quite capable to prevent terrible accident at a modern level of technology development.
But for now clock is ticking...